After the intervention by the armies of Tsar Nicholas I of Russia, Bem's army was defeated decisively at the Battle of Timioara (Temesvr, Hun.)

"All nationalities living in Transylvania - Romanians, Hungarians and Germans - have more in common," she says, "than distinctive features" in how they construct their identity.

Warfare erupted in November with both Romanian and Saxon troops, under Austrian command, battling the Hungarians led by the Polish born general Jzef Bem.

In the second telling, he married his daughter into the rpd dynasty.

There are also sizeable Hungarian (20 percent), Roma (3.3 percent), German (0.7 percent) and Serb (0.1 percent) communities.

The Gesta Hungarorum then retells the story of Menumorut. It was briefly united with Wallachia and Moldavi in 1600 under Michael the Brave. Dacia reached its maximum extent under the rule of Burebista.

This region has a population of 7,221,733, with a large Romanian majority (75,9 percent). European Integration and the Rise of Regional Parties. The post-WWII borders with Hungary, agreed on at the Treaty of Paris, were identical with those set out in 1920. on August 9, 1849. According to the usage of Hungarian noblemen of the time, Iancu/John/Jnos took his family name after his landed estate. An administrative system of county-type units.

in accordance with New World Encyclopedia standards. This is also the origin of many other languages' names for the region, such as the Polish Siedmiogrd. Rkczi's defeat in Poland, combined with the subsequent invasions of Transylvania by the Turks and their Crimean Tatar allies, the ensuing loss of territory (most importantly, the loss of the most important Transylvanian stronghold, Oradea) and diminishing manpower led to the complete subordination of Transylvania, which now became a powerless vassal of the Ottoman Empire.

Timber is another valuable resource. He was defeated by the warriors of the Magyar chieftain Ttny (also called Thtm; in the original Latin: Tuhutum) sometime during the tenth century. The new province was divided under Hadrian: Dacia Superior, that corresponded roughly to Transylvania and Dacia Inferior, similar to the region of South Romania (Walachia). As a response to this policy, several peaceful movements of the Romanian Orthodox population advocated for freedom of worship for all the Transylvanian population, most notably being the movements led by Visarion Sarai, Nicolae Oprea Miclu and Sofronie of Cioara. After the Romans' withdrawal in 271 C.E., it was subject to various temporary influences and migration waves: Visigoths, Carpians, Huns, and Gepids (Slavic peoples). Villages with Fortified Churches in Transylvania. The south of Transylvania is home to the Carpathian Mountain range, while the west is dominated by the Apuseni Mountains.

Hateg, Maramures, Lapus. Another hypothesis is that the name is borrowing of the Hungarian name Erdly as is the Romanian name Ardyalo - in old Hungarian, Erdly was pronounced as Erdl.

A key figure to emerge in Transylvania in the first half of the fifteenth century was John Hunyadi (Iancu de Hunedoara), a native of Transylvania, born in a family of Romanian origins. He was one of the greatest military figures of the time, being Hungarian general (voivode) of Transylvania and then governor of the Kingdom of Hungary from 1446 to 1452. ". [1] "Transylvania" means "beyond the forest" (trans meaning "across, over, beyond").

One solution is for the creation of more local governance across the globe within the contexts of larger structures such as the EU, which Romania joined in 2007, since it can be argued that as long as nation-states remain the main unit of political organization, justice and equality will elude the human race. The initial e- in Hungarian occasionally changes to a in Romanian (cf. castle corvin hunyadi romania hunedoara transylvania doug pearson

Transylvania today is a bustling tourist location for many Europeans and millions all over the world. In addition, they tried to persuade Romanian Orthodox clergymen to join the Greek (Byzantine Rite) in union with Rome. Southern Transylvania under Bulgar rule. After the Mohacs battle it was an autonomous principality within the Ottoman Empire (sixteenthseventeenth century) and then once again became part of Hungary at the end of the seventeenth century.

[15]. Due to the fact that Transylvania was now beyond the reach of Catholic religious authority, Protestant preaching such as Lutheranism and Calvinism were able to flourish in the region.

Her son Taksony, the grandson of Menumorut, became ruler of the Magyars and father of Mihly and Gza, whose son Vajk became the first King of Hungary in 1001 under the Christian baptismal name Stephen.

Also Christianity survived as proved by the many artifacts discovered.

Colonists from other Roman provinces were brought in to settle the land and found cities like Apulum (now Alba Iulia), Napoca (now Cluj-Napoca), Ulpia Traiana Sarmizegetusa and Aquae.

Others regard the history of inter-cultural tolerance in Transylvania as too strong for a Kosovo-type conflict to occur.

This was followed by a second Mongol invasion in 1285, led by Nogai Khan. After the Treaty of Paris (1947), at the end of World War II, the territory was returned to Romania.

Following this devastation, Transylvania was reorganized according to a class system of Estates, which established privileged groups (universitates) with power and influence in economic and political life, as well as along ethnic lines. Cluj-Napoca is today considered to be the region's spiritual capital, although Transylvania was also ruled from Alba Iulia during its period as an autonomous principality within the Ottoman Empire, and from Sibiu, where the Habsburg governor was located from 1711 to 1848. Subjective Transylvania: A Case Study of Post-communist nationalism. The privileged position of these figures tended to put brakes on the normal exercise of Romanian critical historiography[6].

Bounded in the east and south by the Carpathian mountain range, historic Transylvania extended in the west to the Apuseni Mountains. The "Gesta Hungarorum" and the Romanian continuity theory.

The other Estates were Saxons, Szeklers and Romanians (or Vlachs - Universitas Valachorum), all with an ethnic and ethno-linguistic basis (Universis nobilibus, Saxonibus, Syculis et Olachis). In 895 as a result of a planned 'conquest' and a massive withdrawal caused by a Hungarian conquest (War of 894-896) they established in the Upper-Tisza region and Transylvania and started to expand their territories towards west only in 899. During the Roman administration also Christianity entered in the current territory of Transylvania from the neighboring Roman provinces where, according to the tradition of the Romanian Orthodox Church, Saint Peter preached. It was during this early portion of the 1900s when Transylvanian territory came under Romanian domain and was incorporated as an important region in the country of Romania. Transylvania's seven counties were brought under the voivode's (count of Alba Iulia) rule in 1263. In 1241-1242, during the Mongol invasion of Europe, Transylvania was among the territories devastated by the Golden Horde. Seven red towers on a yellow background representing the seven fortified cities of the Transylvanian Saxons, The medieval cities of Alba Iulia, Cluj-Napoca, Sibiu (European Capital Of Culture-2007), Trgu Mure and Sighioara, The city of Braov and the nearby Poiana Braov ski resort, The city of Hunedoara with the fourteenth century Hunyadi Castle, The citadel and the Art Nouveau city centre of Oradea, The Wooden Churches of the Maramure region, The Dacian Fortresses of the Ortie Mountains, including Sarmizegetusa, The cafe culture, street theatre and cosmopolitan society of Sibiu. However the autonomy was taken by the end of rpd dynasty in 1301. The region of Transylvania is located in the country of Romania and has a long history of being exchanged back and forth between Hungary, Romania, and even the Turks at one point in its history.

During Antoninus Pius (138-161) the same territory was included in the provinces Dacia Porolissensis (capital at Porolissum) and Dacia Apulensis (capital at Apulum, today Alba-Iulia city in Romania). Lipcsey, Ildik, Sabin Gherman, and Adrian Severin. The 300-year long special separate status came to an end by the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867, which established the dual monarchy and reincorporated Transylvania into the Kingdom of Hungary. There are those who argue that the European Union, of which Romania is a member, provides a framework for the devolution of greater autonomy to regions, just as some powers can be devolved to the Union. Transylvania is rich in mineral resources, notably lignite, iron, lead, manganese, gold, copper, natural gas, salt and sulfur. Transylvania has been home to a variety of ethnic groups, which have traditionally lived together in harmony. Since the Austro-Hungarian empire had begun to disintegrate after the end of World War I, the nationalities living inside proclaimed their independence from the empire. Today, Transylvania is home to many beautiful landscapes and tourist locations.

The History Of Transylvania And The Transylvanian Saxons. In addition to being known as the home of the original Vlad Dracula, Transylvania is known for being Romanias fourth largest region and is also home to a wide number of Romanias Heritage Sites listed on the UNESCO World Heritage Site lists. Transylvania's long history of Muslim Turkish influence, as well as its late industrialization (which meant that in the late nineteenth century, Transylvania was still mostly covered with wilderness, created an orientalist fascination with the region by a number of notable Victorian writers. Romanians chided the Hungarians for refusing to integrate and in some cases for their ignorance of the Romanian language. These circumstances marked the beginning of a conflict between ethnic Hungarian Catholics and ethnic Romanian Orthodox in the territory of Transylvania which in some regions remains unresolved to this very day. After the Decree of Turda (1366), which openly called for "to expel or to exterminate in this country malefactors belonging to any nation, especially Romanians" in Transylvania, the only possibility for Romanians to retain or access nobility was through conversion to Roman Catholicism.

The Hungarian ruler was successful in these wars, and Transylvania was incorporated into the Christian Kingdom of Hungary. Ethnic identity was suppressed during the communist period (1947-1989) submerged within a national identity.

Where ethnic groups demand autonomy or self-governance, one solution is to allow the formation of smaller units which can then cooperate with others within a larger trans-national entity. Separatist Movement seeks inspiration in Kosovo.

Due to the success of the latter work, Transylvania became associated in the English-speaking world with vampires.

[8], The sixteenth century in Southeastern Europe was marked by the struggle between the Muslim Ottoman Empire and the Catholic Habsburg Empire. romanian romania most why beauty dark tv bucharest malvina deal haired matchmaking rumanian host born travel slatina mdlina ghenea diana

In some border regions (Maramure, ara Haegului) the Orthodox Romanian ruling class of nobilis kenezius (classed as lower nobility in the Kingdom as a whole) had the same rights as the Hungarian nobilis conditionarius. After a brief period of Bulgarian rule, the territory, was partially under Byzantine control.

The Transylvanian plateau, 300 to 500 meters (1,000-1,600 feet) high, is drained by the Mure, Some, Cri, and Olt rivers, as well as other tributaries of the Danube.

Stock raising, agriculture, wine production and fruit growing are important occupations. the Roman Empire conquered the territory and its wealth (gold and salt) was systematically exploited. ), Coat of arms of Michael the Brave, ruler of Transylvania, Wallachia and Moldova, 1600, Landesfarben of Transylvania in Austria-Hungary, reflecting the tinctures of the coat-of-arms, As part of the coat of arms of Hungary before the Treaty of Trianon in 1920, As in the coat of arms of Romania at present. A black turul on a blue background, representing the medieval nobility, which was mainly Magyar.

After the Ottoman Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent overran central Hungary, Transylvania became a semi-independent principality where Austrian and Turkish influences vied for supremacy for nearly two centuries. The general assembly (congregatio generalis) of the four Estates had few genuine legislative powers in Transylvania, but it sometimes took measures regarding order in the country. The region was also influenced during this period by massive Slavic immigration. [13], A new and more radical organization, the Hungarian Civic Party, has risen to challenge the establishment Hungarian party and has advocated for the autonomy of the Szekler region. After World War II and especially after the fall of Communism, Transylvania lost almost all of the German-speaking population, most of them left for Germany. [19] The assimilation process for Hungarians slowed during the first stages of the communist era, when most of the region's ethnic Hungarian population was granted nominal political autonomy, but accelerated under the communist regime. With his private mercenary army John rapidly rose to the heights of power.

[7] By the early eleventh century the ethnic Hungarian]] Szkely were established in southeastern Transylvania as a border population of ready warriors, and in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, the areas in the south and northeast were settled by German colonists called Saxons.

The latter period of their rule saw a four-sided conflict in Transylvania involving the Transylvanian Bthorys, the emerging Austrian Empire, the Ottoman Empire, and the Romanian voivoideship (province) of Wallachia.

Hungarians assert, among other things, that the Roman population quit Dacia completely in 271, that the Romans could not have made a lasting impression on Transylvania's aboriginal population in only two centuries, and that Transylvania's Romanians descended from Balkan nomads who crossed northward over the Danube in the thirteenth century and flowed into Transylvania in any significant numbers only after Hungary opened its borders to foreigners. [4] As a political entity, (Southern) Transylvania is mentioned from the twelfth century as a county (Alba) of the Kingdom of Hungary (M. princeps ultrasilvanus - comes Bellegratae).

In the sixteenth century, following the Protestant Reformation, it was characterized by religious tolerance that had no parallel at the time. The Hungarians said they were the target of attacks by Romanian politicians and news organizations.

The first heraldic representation of Transylvania is found on the coat of arms of Michael the Brave. Transylvania, its Products and its People, by Charles Boner, 1865., Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License. His military campaigns against the Ottoman Empire]] brought him the status of Transylvanian governor in 1446 and papal recognition as the Prince of Transylvania in 1448. The 2002 Romanian census classified Transylvania as the entire region of Romania west of the Carpathians. In 101-102 and 105-106 C.E., Roman armies under the Emperor Trajan fought a series of military campaigns to subjugate the wealthy Dacian Kingdom.

In common reference, the Western border of Transylvania has come to be identified with the present Romanian-Hungarian border, settled in the Treaty of Trianon, although geographically the two are not identical. There are large iron and steel, chemical, and textile industries. By the Battle of the Mohacs in 1526, Transylvania became Turk territory, a situation that stayed in effect through the Ottoman Empire and into the first half of the twentieth century. However, as shown by the archeological research, many of the Roman cities continued to exist, building fortifications. Due to increasing pressure from the Visigoths, the Romans abandoned the province during the reign of the Emperor Aurelian in 271.

Outside Romania, Transylvania is strongly associated with Bram Stoker's novel Dracula while within Romania and Hungary the region is known for the scenic beauty of its Carpathian landscape and its rich history. The prince, coveting the Polish crown, allied with Sweden and invaded Poland in spite of the Turkish Porte (Sultan) clearly prohibiting any military action. 6. The area now constituting Transylvania was the political center of the ancient Kingdom of Dacia, where several important fortified cities were built; among them was the capital Sarmizegetusa, located near the current Romanian town of Hunedoara.

After 106 C.E.

According to the Gesta Hungarorum describing among others the conquest of Transylvania, three statal structures ruled by Menumorut, Glad and Gelu, the most powerful local leaders who opposed the Magyars were encountered and defeated by the Magyars.

the Scottish) may not need the state (e.g. Transylvania is an ancient land, once the nucleus of the powerful Kingdom of Dacia. Magyar Autonomy, An Issue Romania Needs To Deal With. The territory fell under the control of the Visigoths and Carpians until they were in turn displaced and subdued by the Huns in 376, under the leadership of their infamous warlord Attila the Hun. In 1568 the Edict of Turda proclaimed four religious expressions in Transylvania - Catholicism, Lutheranism, Calvinism and Unitarianism, while Orthodoxy, which was the confession of the Romanian population, was proclaimed as "tolerated" (tolerata). It is also famous for its bear spotting and lynx population, a population that thrived during communism when the dictator of Nicolae Ceausescu was the only citizen of the land permitted to hunt. [18] The ethnic Hungarian population of Transylvania, largely composed of Szkely, form a majority in the counties of Covasna and Harghita. The 16 counties are: Historic definitions of Transylvania vary geographically. Romanian historians explain the absence of hard evidence for their claims by pointing out that the region lacked organized administration until the twelfth century and by positing that the Mongols destroyed any existing records when they plundered the area in 1241. This fact has fueled a centuries-long feud between Romanian and Hungarian historians over Transylvania. The only possibility for Romanians to retain or access nobility in Hungarian Transylvania was through conversion to Catholicism.

Romania Confronts Transylvanian Separatism. It may also take its origin from the Khazar word Ardil-land (Hebrew "Eretz Ardil," from the Celtic "Arduenna" (forest), reflected in other names such as Arda, Ardal, Ardistan, Ardiche, Ardennes, Ardelt and Ardilla, or from the Sanskrit Har-Deal. "[16] In fact, in sharp contrast to how many in Europe traditionally regarded Transylvania, as a place of "despots, vampires and werewolves," Transylvanians regard their homeland as "an enlightened place of religious tolerance, reform and learning."[17]. Another novel featuring Transylvania is The Sight, by author David Clement-Davies. Of course, few nations willingly agree to allow provinces or regions to secede. "Historical Legacies and their Impact on Post-Communist Voting Behavior.

New World Encyclopedia writers and editors rewrote and completed the Wikipedia article

Transylvania was first referred to in a Medieval Latin document in 1075 as ultra silvam, meaning "exceedingly forested" (ultra meaning "excessively or beyond what is common" and the accusative case of sylva (sylvam) meaning "wood or forest").

Under Bocskai's successors, most notably Gabriel Bethlen and George I Rkczi, Transylvania passed through a golden age for many religious movements and for the arts and culture. The historical region granted to Romania in 1920 covered 23 counties including nearly 102,200 km (102,787 - 103,093 in Hungarian sources and 102,200 in contemporary Romanian documents) now due to the several administrative reorganizations Transylvania covers 16 present-day counties Romanian: jude) which include nearly 99,837 km of central and northwest Romania. In August 1940, the second Vienna Award granted the northern half of Transylvania to Hungary.

Villages with fortified churches were declared World Heritage Sites in 1993[20].

The so-called Transylvanian trilogy of historical novels by Miklos Banffy, The Writing on the Wall, is an extended treatment of the nineteenth and early twentieth century social and political history of the country. The first Estate was the lay and ecclesiastic aristocracy, ethnically heterogeneous, but undergoing a process of homogenization around its Hungarian nucleus. The Treaty of Versailles placed Transylvania under the sovereignty of Romania, an ally of the Triple Entente, and after the defeat in 1919 of Bla Kun's Hungarian Soviet Republic by the Romanian army the Treaty of St. Germain (1919) and the Treaty of Trianon (signed in June 1920) further elaborated the status of Transylvania and defined the new border between the states of Hungary and Romania. In the seventeenth century, Transylvania was an autonomous state and passed through a "Golden age" for, ISBN links support NWE through referral fees, Conquest of Transylvania and integration into the Kingdom of Hungary, Transylvania as an Independent Principality.

It has been emboldened by Kosovo's 2008 declaration of independence from Serbia, although unlike the Kosovars, the Szeklers are asking for autonomy within Romania rather than complete independence, leaving foreign policy and national defense in the hands of the government in Bucharest. Some Orthodox Romanian nobles converted, being integrated in the Hungarian nobility, but the most of them declined, thus losing their status and privileges. The bloodsucking was a dramatization of a leader who wanted his enemies skewered on stakes. "This," she says, "may help to explain why there was no escalation of violent ethnic conflict in Transylvania." when, Rubobostes, a Dacian king from the territory of present-day Transylvania, undertook the control of the Carpathian basin by defeating the Celts who previously held the power in the region.

Its mountain climate lends to a thriving spa industry where thermal springs and mud baths are enjoyed often.

This has resulted in much confusion over what country Transylvania is located in.

As across much of Europe, a period of chaos and conquests followed after the collapse of Roman rule. After the conquest, the Romans seized an enormous amount of wealth (the Dacian Wars were commemorated on Trajan's Column in Rome) and immediately started to exploit the Dacian gold and salt mines located in today territory of Transylvania. Hungarian legislation also came to supersede the Austrian code of civil procedure, penal law, commercial law, and regulations for bills of exchange. Transylvania became one of the few European States where Roman Catholics, Calvinists, Lutheranss and Unitarians lived in peace, although Orthodox Romanians continued to be denied equal recognition. The region underwent multiple other occupations until the eleventh century, after which it was under the control of Hungary.

The seat of the Transylvanian Diet was itself moved to Sibiu for some time in the nineteenth century. Continuing his military activity, he won an important victory at Belgrade in 1456, which halted the Ottomans advance for several decades, but died shortly afterwards during an epidemic. This was approved by the National Council of the Germans from Transylvania and the Council of the Danube Swabians from the Banat, on 15 December in Media.

History of Transylvania: 3. After the suppression of the Budai Nagy Antal-revolt in 1437, the political system was based on Unio Trium Nationum (The Union of the Three Nations).

The percentage of Romanian majority has increased since the union of Transylvania with Romania after World War I in 1918 (the 1910 Census indicates a total population of 5,262,495, Romanians 53.8 percent; Hungarians 31.6 percent; Germans 10.7 percent). Some of Transylvania's historical communities are, however, agitating for greater autonomy within Romania. One of its most famous tourist spots is the infamous Bran Castle, which was the location for the 1897 Bram Stoker novel on Count Dracula. Credit is due under the terms of this license that can reference both the New World Encyclopedia contributors and the selfless volunteer contributors of the Wikimedia Foundation.

One of his descendants, Ahtum, was a duke of Banat and the last ruler who opposed to the establishment of the Hungarian Kingdom in the eleventh century, but he was too, defeated by the Hungarian Crown. [5] The Romanians assert that they are the descendants of Latin-speaking Dacian peasants who remained in Transylvania after the Roman exodus, and of Slavs who lived in Transylvania's secluded valleys, forests, and mountains, and survived there during the tumult of the Dark Ages. In its early history, the territory of Transylvania belonged to a variety of empires and states, including Dacia, the Roman Empire, the Hun Empire and the Gepid Kingdom.

By 106 AD, the region was occupied by the Roman Empire, who ultimately withdrew by 271 AD after which it was in the control of the Slavs. A large portion of the population perished. The early eleventh century was marked by the conflict between Stephen I of Hungary and his uncle Gyula, the ruler of Transylvania. The Unitarian Church of Transylvania, founded in 1568, is considered to be one of the oldest of the modern Unitarian movement. The novel itself is inspired by folklore and superstition, which jested that the Count of the castle would skewer its enemies and suck their blood for sport. Transylvania accounts for around 35 percent of Romania's GDP, and has a GDP per capita (PPP) of around $11,500, around 10 percent higher than the Romanian average.

On June 20, 1867, the Diet was dissolved by royal decree, and an ordinance abrogated the legislative acts of the Cluj-Napoca provincial assembly.