Convinced that this Treaty constitutes a step towards a Treaty on general and complete disarmament under strict and effective international control, and determined to continue negotiations to this end. This location is noted by: (L) for London, (M) for Moscow, and (W) for Washington. Amendments shall enter into force for each State Party accepting the amendments upon their acceptance by a majority of the States Parties to the Treaty and, thereafter, for each remaining State Party on the date of acceptance by it. Each State Party to this Treaty shall in exercising its national sovereignty have the right to withdraw from this Treaty if it decides that extraordinary events related to the subject matter of this Treaty have jeopardized the supreme interests of its country. [2] It entered into force 18 May 1972, when the United States, the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, and more than 22 nations had deposited instruments of ratification. IN WITNESS WHEREOF the undersigned, being duly authorized thereto, have signed this Treaty. If the doubts persist, the State Party having such doubts shall notify the other States Parties, and the Parties concerned shall cooperate on such further procedures for verification as may be agreed, including appropriate inspection of objects, structures, installations or other facilities that reasonably may be expected to be of a kind described in article I. External links to other Internet sites should not be construed as an endorsement of the views contained therein. This article incorporatespublic domain material from the United States Department of State document: .mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit;word-wrap:break-word}.mw-parser-output .citation q{quotes:"\"""\"""'""'"}.mw-parser-output .citation:target{background-color:rgba(0,127,255,0.133)}.mw-parser-output .id-lock-free a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free a{background:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/65/Lock-green.svg")right 0.1em center/9px no-repeat}.mw-parser-output .id-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .id-lock-registration a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration a{background:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg")right 0.1em center/9px no-repeat}.mw-parser-output .id-lock-subscription a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg")right 0.1em center/9px no-repeat}.mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a{background:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg")right 0.1em center/12px no-repeat}.mw-parser-output .cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:none;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;color:#d33}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{color:#d33}.mw-parser-output .cs1-maint{display:none;color:#3a3;margin-left:0.3em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right{padding-right:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .citation .mw-selflink{font-weight:inherit}"Treaty on the Prohibition of the Emplacement of Nuclear Weapons and Other Weapons of Mass Destruction on the Seabed and the Ocean Floor and in the Subsoil Thereof". The verification procedures are set forth in Article III. Some wondered whether the verification procedures would really be effective. This Treaty shall be subject to ratification by signatory States.

Montenegro's effective date of succession was 3 June 2006. 3.

Ratification advised by U.S. Senate February 15, 1972

Treaty on the Prohibition of the Emplacement of Nuclear Weapons and Other Weapons of Mass Destruction on the Seabed and the Ocean Floor and in the Subsoil Thereof, Signed at Washington, London, and Moscow February 11, 1971

Information released online from January 20, 2009 to January 20, 2017. Five years after the entry into force of this Treaty, a conference of Parties to the Treaty shall be held at Geneva, Switzerland, in order to review the operation of this Treaty with a view to assuring that the purposes of the preamble and the provisions of the Treaty are being realized. In a message of 18 March 1969, President Nixon said the American delegation to the ENDC should seek discussion of the factors necessary for an international agreement prohibiting the emplacement of weapons of mass destruction on the seabed and ocean floor and pointed out that an agreement of this kind would, like the Antarctic and Outer Space treaties, "prevent an arms race before it has a chance to start. The ROC has committed itself to continue to adhere to the requirements of the treaty, and the United States has declared that they still consider them to be "bound by its obligations".[8]. In recognition of the feeling that efforts to achieve a more comprehensive agreement should continue, Article V of the Treaty bound parties to work for further measures to prevent an arms race on the seabed. Learn how and when to remove this template message, Conference of the Committee on Disarmament, "Treaty on the Prohibition of the Emplacement of Nuclear Weapons and Other Weapons of Mass Destruction on the Seabed and the Ocean Floor and in the Subsoil Thereof", "Treaty on the Prohibition of the Emplacement of Nuclear Weapons and Other Weapons of Mass Destruction on the Sea-Bed and the Ocean Floor and in the Subsoil Thereof", United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs, Institute of International Politics and Economics, "TREATY ON THE PROHIBITION OF THE EMPLACEMENT OF NUCLEAR WEAPONS AND OTHER WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION ON THE SEA-BED AND THE OCEAN FLOOR AND IN THE SUBSOIL THEREOF", "Treaty on the Prohibition of the Emplacement of Nuclear Weapons and Other Weapons of Mass Destruction on the Sea-Bed and the Ocean Floor and in the Subsoil Thereof (London Version)", " ", "Montenegro: Succession to Sea-Bed Treaty", Treaty on the Prohibition of the Emplacement of Nuclear Weapons and other Weapons of Mass Destruction on the Sea-Bed and the Ocean Floor and in the Subsoil Thereof, Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean, South Pacific Nuclear Weapons Free Zone Treaty, United States Russia mutual detargeting, Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Seabed_Arms_Control_Treaty&oldid=1078507160, Treaties establishing nuclear-weapon-free zones, Treaties of the People's Republic of Benin, Treaties of the People's Republic of Bulgaria, Treaties of the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic, Treaties of the People's Republic of China, Treaties of the Hungarian People's Republic, Treaties of the Mongolian People's Republic, Treaties of the Socialist Republic of Romania, Treaties of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Treaties of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, Treaties extended to the Netherlands Antilles, Treaties extended to Saint Christopher-Nevis-Anguilla, Treaties extended to the British Virgin Islands, Treaties extended to the Falkland Islands, Treaties extended to the Pitcairn Islands, Treaties extended to Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha, Treaties extended to South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, Treaties extended to the Turks and Caicos Islands, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles lacking in-text citations from February 2011, Wikipedia articles incorporating text from the United States Department of State, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License 3.0, 22 ratifications (including depositary states), Governments of the United States of America, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, English, French, Russian, Spanish and Chinese, This page was last edited on 21 March 2022, at 22:57.

Considering that the prevention of a nuclear arms race on the seabed and the ocean floor serves the interests of maintaining world peace, reduces international tensions and strengthens friendly relations among States. The Seabed Arms Control Treaty was opened for signature in Washington, London, and Moscow on February 11, 1971.

If it is ascertained through these inquiries that a particular State Party is responsible for the activities, that State Party shall consult and cooperate with other Parties as provided in paragraph 2 of this article.

2. The Third Review Conference was held in Geneva in September 1989 and confirmed results of previous meetings. 5. At the same time, seabed-related military and arms control issues were referred to the Eighteen Nation Committee on Disarmament (ENDC) and its successor, the Conference of the Committee on Disarmament (CCD). And there were concurrent fears that nations might use the seabed as a new environment for military installations, including those capable of launching nuclear weapons. The Conference concluded that the first five years in the life of the Treaty had demonstrated its effectiveness.

In the 1960s, advances in the technology of oceanography and greatly increased interest in the vast and virtually untapped resources of the ocean floor led to concern that the absence of clearly established rules of law might lead to strife. Like the Antarctic Treaty, the Outer Space Treaty, and the Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone treaties, the Seabed Arms Control Treaty sought to prevent the introduction of international conflict and nuclear weapons into an area hitherto free of them. Any State which does not sign the Treaty before its entry into force in accordance with paragraph 3 of this article may accede to it at any time. Article I sets forth the principal obligation of the Treaty. Entered into force May 18, 1972. Using as a model the provisions for verification in the Outer Space Treaty, the Soviets proposed that all installations and structures be open to inspection, provided that reciprocal rights to inspect were granted.

It prohibits parties from emplacing nuclear weapons or weapons of mass destruction on the seabed and the ocean floor beyond a 12-mile coastal zone. and the Ukrainian S.S.R. In keeping with a proposal submitted to the U.N. Secretary General by Ambassador Pardo of Malta in August 1967, the U.N. General Assembly, on December 18, 1967, established an ad hoc committee to study ways of reserving the seabed for peaceful purposes, with the objective of ensuring "that the exploration and use of the seabed and the ocean floor should be conducted in accordance with the principles and purposes of the Charter of the United Nations, in the interests of maintaining international peace and security and for the benefit of all mankind." After more than two years of negotiation, the final draft was approved by the U.N. General Assembly on December 7, 1970, by a vote of 104 to 2 (El Salvador, Peru), with two abstentions (Ecuador and France). As can be seen, the two drafts differed importantly on what was to be prohibited. In its final form the Treaty adopted a 12-mile limit to define the seabed area.

It allows signatories to observe all seabed "activities" of any other signatory beyond the 12-mile zone to ensure compliance. The verification provisions also were a subject of intensive discussion. 2 The United States regards the signature and ratification by the Byelorussian S.S.R. Verification pursuant to this article may be undertaken by any State Party using its own means, or with the full or partial assistance of any other State Party, or through appropriate international procedures within the framework of the United Nations and in accordance with its Charter. 1. In keeping with a proposal submitted to the U.N. Secretary General by Ambassador Pardo of Malta in August 1967, the U.N. General Assembly, on 18 December 1967, established an ad hoc committee to study ways of reserving the seabed for peaceful purposes, with the objective of ensuring "that the exploration and use of the seabed and the ocean floor should be conducted in accordance with the principles and purposes of the Charter of the United Nations, in the interests of maintaining international peace and security and for the benefit of all mankind."

List of delegations to the Preparatory Committee, Information for delegations on the Secretariat of the Preparatory Committee for the Review Conference of the Sea-bed Treaty, Final report of the Preparatory Committee, Summary records of the 1st to 11th meetings, Offices and telephone numbers of the Special Representative of the Secretary-General of the United Nations of the delegation of the International Atomic Energy Agency, Offices and telephone numbers of the Conference President and Secretariat, Proposal submitted by the Turkish delegation for inclusion in the Final Document(s) of the Review Conference, Decision taken by the Review Conference of the Parties to the Treaty on the Prohibition of the Emplacement of Nuclear Weapons and Other Weapons of Mass Destruction on the Sea-Bed and the Ocean Floor and in the Subsoil Thereof regarding its programme of work on the recommendation of the General Committee, Working paper concerning the verification procedures of the Sea-Bed Treaty 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the delegation of Australia for inclusion in the Final Document(s), Draft rules of procedure for the Review Conference, Proposal of the delegation of Romania for inclusion in the Final Document(s), Paragraphs proposed by the delegation of Italy for inclusion in the Final Declaration, Proposal of the delegation of the Netherlands for inclusion in the Final Declaration, Proposal of the delegation of the United States of America for inclusion in the Final Declaration, Proposal of the delegation of India for inclusion in the Final Document, Proposal of the delegation of Japan for inclusion in the Final Declaration, Draft Final Declaration submitted by the delegations of Bulgaria, Ghana, Hungary, India, Iran, Norway and the United Kingdom, Provisional agenda for the Review Conference of the Parties to the Treaty on the Prohibition of the Emplacement of Nuclear Weapons and Other Weapons of Mass Destruction on the Sea-Bed and the Ocean Floor and in the Subsoil Thereof, List of States Parties to and Signatories of the Treaty on the Prohibition of the Emplacement of Nuclear Weapons and Other Weapons of Mass Destruction on the Sea-Bed and the Ocean Floor and in the Subsoil Thereof, Offices and telephone numbers of the Secretariat, Estimated cost of the Second Review Conference, Proposal of the Netherlands for inclusion in the Final Declaration, Proposal of the delegation of Australia for inclusion in the Final Declaration, Programme of work adopted by the Review Conference, Rules of procedure of the Review Conference, Developments relating to the Treaty on the Prohibition of the Emplacement of Nuclear Weapons and Other Weapons of Mass Destruction on the Sea-Bed and Ocean Floor and in the Subsoil Thereof, Developments relating to the Treaty on the Prohibition of the Emplacement of Nuclear Weapons and Other Weapons of Mass Destruction on the Sea-Bed and Ocean Floor and in the Subsoil Thereof (1977-1983), Revised estimated cost of the Second Review Conference, Letter dated 22 September 1983 addressed to the President of the Review Conference by the Head of the delegation of Mongolia, Proposal of the German Democratic Republic, Proposals of Colombia for inclusion in the Final Declaration, Proposal of Hungary for inclusion in the Final Declaration, Proposal of Czechoslovakia for inclusion in the Final Declaration, Proposal of Japan for inclusion in the Final Declaration, Proposal of Romania for inclusion in the Final Declaration, Final report of the Preparatory Committee for the Second Review Conference of the Parties to the Treaty on the Prohibtion of the Eplacement of Nuclear Weapons and Other Weapons of Mass Destruction on the Sea-Bed and the Ocean Floor and in the Subsoil Thereof, Estimated cost of the Third Review Conference, List of States Parties which have adhered since the Second Review Conference in September 1983, Declaration by Peru concerning the Treaty on the Prohibition of the Emplacement of Nuclear Weapons and Other Weapons of Mass Destruction on the Sea-Bed and the Ocean Floor and in the Subsoil Thereof, and the Third Review Conference, Proposal of Sweden for inclusion in the Final Declaration, Programme of work of the Third Review Conference, Rules of procedure for the Third Review Conference, Developments relating to the Treaty on the Prohibition of the Emplacement of Nuclear Weapons and Other Weapons of Mass Destruction on the Sea-Bed and Ocean Floor and in the Subsoil Thereof (1977-1989): Background, Revised estimated cost of the Third Review Conference of the Parties to the Treaty on the Prohibition of the Emplacement of Nuclear Weapons and Other Weapons of Mass Destruction on the Sea-Bed and the Ocean Floor and Its Subsoil Thereof: Note by the Secretariat, Declaration of the Greek Delegation regarding Articles I, II, III and IV of the Sea-Bed Treaty of 1971, Proposal of Turkey for inclusion in the Final Declaration, Report of the Preparatory Committee for the Third Review Conference of the Parties to the Treaty on the Prohibition of the Emplacement of Nuclear Weapons and Other Weapons of Mass Destruction on the Sea-Bed and the Ocean Floor and in the Subsoil Thereof, Report of the Preparatory Committee for the Third Review Conference of the Parties to the Treaty on the PRohibition of the Emplacement of Nuclear Weapons and Other Weapons of Mass Destruction on the Sea-Bed and the Ocean Floor and in the Subsoil Thereof.