Some months later he was sent an album about that murderous operation Heinrich, which Bach-Zelewski had dedicated toHimmler bynaming it after him. Furthermore, German blood must not be used in the service of aforeign nation. Ihre Hauptziele waren die polnische Intelligenz, die von den Nazis fr die pro-polnische Politik im polnischen Korridor in der Zwischenkriegszeit verantwortlich gemacht wurde. Es war Teil eines greren vlkermord Intelligenzaktion ,   , die stattfand in den meisten Nazis besetzten Westpolen im Laufe Betrieb Tannenberg ( Unternehmen Tannenberg ),  purposed Nazibeamten aus installieren SiPo ,Kripo , Gestapo und SD an der Spitze einer neuen Verwaltungsmaschine. () Unconditionally, attention should be paid tothe fact that there can be no Polish masters; where there are Polish masters, and Ido not care how hard this sound, they must be killed. In retaliation, the SS killed more than 1,000 male citizens of Minsk, though SS leader Heinrich Himmler reportedly said the assassination was ablessing since Kube did not support some of the harsh measures mandated bythe SS. But in most cases people were used, on an ever larger scale. 243 Belarusian villages were burned down twice, 83 villages three times, and 22 villages were burned down four or more times in the Witebsk region. I thus order that all roads that must be driven on byGerman troops are tobe walked first byall inhabitants of the location (including women and children) with cows, horses and vehicles up tothe next command post, or that marching columns must be preceded at adistance of at least 150 meters bysuch inhabitants. That is how the ghettos were rid of people who were ready and able toresist. There were four ghettos in the city of Homel, two in Zlobin, two in Korma, and one in Rohaczew, Brahin, Chojniki, Rzeczyca, and several other places. The aim of this action was the elimination of Polish societys elite, defined very broadly as: Polish nobles, intelligentsia, teachers, entrepreneurs, social workers, military veterans, members of national organisations, priests, judges, political activists, and anyone who had attended secondary school. One must have luck. Viele der Verbrechen wurden mit offizieller Genehmigung vom sogenannten Einsatzkommando 16 und " Selbstschutz " oder von paramilitrischen Organisationen ethnischer Deutscher mit zuvor polnischer Staatsbrgerschaft begangen. Whole regions were classified as bandit territory (German: Bandengebiet): residents were expelled or murdered and dwellings destroyed. The active part of the ghetto was not large young men of military age mostly were already in the Soviet Army. After Operation Hermann in the summer of 1943 Curt von Gottberg required appropriate pictures for an album about partisan fighting tobe handed toHimmler. By 1942 Minsk became amajor centre of Soviet partisan resistance movement against the Occupation of Belarus byNazi Germany during World War II. During asearch of the ghetto byGerman and Russian policemen agroup of children were seized and thrown into pits of deep sand todie. Following the orders of Adolf Hitler, aspecial unit dubbed Tannenberg was created within the Reich Main Security Office (Reichssicherheitshauptamt). It indicates ahigh degree of identification with their deeds rather than an unwilling execution. In order toavoid own casualties through mines it is convenient tohave panje carts going in front along the road or touse auxiliary mine clearing devices. The Belarusian police took on asecondary role in the first stage of the killings. Twenty ghettos were established in the Homel Voblast, in which no less than 21,000 people were imprisoned. The District Kommissar in Mozyrz explained tothe regional Kommissar in Kalinkowicze, that it was necessary toconsider anyone who was born toaJewish parent aJew. Conscription lists (Sonderfahndungsbuch Polen), prepared byGermans before the war, identified more than 61,000 members of the Polish elite: activists, intelligentsia, scholars, actors, former officers, and others, who were tobe interned or shot. After his first operation, Nrnberg, Gottberg reported on December 5, 1942: Enemy dead: 799 bandits, over 300 suspected gangsters and over 1800 Jews  Our losses: 2 dead and 10 wounded. Lokale Deutschen ( Selbstschutz ) und die Gestapo ermordet 5,000 - 6,600 Polen und Juden im Oktober und November 1939 in Fordon, Bydgoszcz, Nordpolen an einem Ort als "bekannt Fordon Tal des Todes " ( polnisch : Fordoska Dolina mierci). For Operation Hermann this directive applied right from the beginning: SS and Police Leader Curt von Gottberg was successively promoted as the head of SS and police for Belarus between October 1942 and June 1944 due toHimmlers sponsorship. The rank and file behaved in asimilar manner. Personen auf dieser Liste wurden "Die Feinde des Reiches" genannt und waren zur Hinrichtung bestimmt. Nach offiziellen Kriterien umfasste die polnische "Intelligenz" Personen mit einer Mittel- oder Hochschulausbildung, Priester, Lehrer, rzte, Zahnrzte, Tierrzte, erfahrene Militroffiziere, Brokraten, Mitglieder der polnischen Verwaltung, Polizei, mittlere und groe Geschftsleute und Kaufleute. Niegdysiejsze miasto krlw Polskich Pozna ciko dowiadczone z rki naszego zachodniego ssiada szczeglnie po rozbiorach Rzeczypospolitej, miecio kiedy skarb grobowiec pierwszego chrzecijaskiego krla Polski Bolesawa Chrobrego. Another order of Gottbergs of December 7, 1942, stated: Each bandit, Jew, gypsy, is tobe regarded as an enemy. Zweite Sonderaktion Krakau First, young and strong men were selected and led out of the ghetto under the pretense that they were completing some kind of ajob. Homes were expropriated tohouse German occupying forces. The blood thus saved justifies the loss of time. The 78th Infantry division ordered the whole civilian population in its area tode-mine the roads in its area every morning until 6 hours: The Nazis made Minsk the administrative centre of Reichskomissariat Ostland and repressed the local population. Thus Erich von dem Bach-Zelewski readily admitted tohave possessed thousands of color photographs of the fight against partisans that were confiscated after the war. During aseries of actions, the Germans killed all but 550 of the approximately 10,000 Jews. Intelligenzaktion Posen 2000 victims from Poznan, Sie wiederum wurden von dem rtlichen Gauleiter Albert Forster  ermutigt, an den Gewalttaten und Pogromen teilzunehmen , der in einer Rede im Hotel Prusinski in Wejherowo Volksdeutsche dazu aufrief, Polen anzugreifen, indem er sagte: "Wir mssen die verlausten Polen beseitigen, beginnend mit denen in der Wiege in deine Hnde gebe ich das Schicksal der Polen, du kannst mit ihnen machen, was du willst". In Turw, the Wainblat sisters, Czasja (15 years old) and Bronja (13 years old) peeled potatoes at aGerman kitchen in exchange for food.  Darber hinaus alle Personen, die in der Zwischenkriegszeit vielen polnischen kulturellen und patriotischen Organisationen wie Polski Zwizek Zachodni oder der Polnischen Union des Westens, Zwizek Obrony Kresw Zachodnich, dem Polnischen Turnverein "Falcon" und dem See- und Kolonialbund angehrten .  Polen wurden vom deutschen Staat whrend des Krieges als Untermenschen angesehen . Methods of carrying out actions The civilians must close up tightly and walk the whole width of the road. The role of Belarusian Auxiliary Police in killing Jews became particularly noticeable during the second wave of destruction, starting in FebruaryMarch 1942. Belorussian collaborators participated in various massacres of Belarusian villagers. Ihre Hauptziele waren die polnische Intelligenz , die von den Nazis fr die pro-polnische Politik im polnischen Korridor in der Zwischenkriegszeit verantwortlich gemacht wurde . That is tosay not every fourth inhabitant but almost 40% of the pre-war Belarusian population perished (considering the present-day borders of Belarus). Almost the whole, previously very numerous, Jewish population of Belarus which did not evacuate was killed. Only ahandful survived. Then they were forced todig aditch and were killed. During aseries of actions, the Germans killed all but 550 of the approximately 10,000 Jews. Die Menge versammelte sich, bevor das Hotel sang "Tte die polnischen Hunde!" During Operation Cottbus between 2,000 and 3,000 Belarusians whom the Germans drove before them into the swamps were torn apart bymines, according toBach-Zelewski. Die Aktion wurde von den paramilitrischen Todesschwadronen der SS - Einsatzcommando 16 und der paramilitrischen Organisation der deutschen Minderheit in Polen - Volksdeutscher Selbstschutz - durchgefhrt. Minsk was re-taken bythe Soviet troops on July 3, 1944 during the Operation Bagration. Mazanik escaped the reprisals and joined the partisans. Similar aspects also apply tothe murder of Jews, prisoners of war, political opponents and the ill. Regardless of this, men in these places were sent toperform compulsory labor and were subject todaily punishments and religious Jews were forced tohave their beards shaved. The Red Army was surrounded, what is known as the Nowogrdek Cauldron. After the German invasion of the Soviet Union on June 22, 1941 in the Operation Barbarossa Minsk was immediately under attack. Partisan resistance immediately began, with most famous Bielski partisans formed of Jewish volunteers operated in the region. It was an early measure of the Generalplan Ost. After his first operation, Nrnberg, Gottberg reported on December 5, 1942: Enemy dead: 799 bandits, over 300 suspected gangsters and over 1800 Jews  Our losses: 2 dead and 10 wounded. Planen Sie Zagady Sowian. Hitler himself decreed: () The General Government is our work force reservoir for lowgrade work (brick plants, road building, etc.,etc.). mittlere und groe Grundbesitzer, Schriftsteller, Journalisten und Zeitungsredakteure. und "Tod den Polen". Gebildete Polen wurden von den Nazis auch als Haupthindernis fr die geplante vollstndige Germanisierung der Region angesehen. Intelligenzaktion Masovien regional action in Masovian Voivodeship 1939/1940 6700 victims from: Ostroleka, Wyszkw, Ciechanw, Wysokie Mazowieckie, Gielczyn near Lomza were killed. und "Tod den Polen". This sounds harsh, but such are the laws of life. While von Schenkendorff in 1942 called for measures against the soldiers, the generally organized sequence of the destruction of villages shows how little was left tochance. Copyright 2019 | MH Magazine WordPress Theme by MH Themes | Opieka techniczna: irebu.pl. The Church of the Transfiguration, known as Biala Fara, or White Church, now contains the relics of the eleven martyrs. After the German invasion of the Soviet Union on June 22, 1941 in the Operation Barbarossa Minsk was immediately under attack. It was more precisely determined that aChristian baptism did not change matters, and baptizing Jews or half-Jews was categorically forbidden. (Their children were targeted for abduction and Germanization. Later they also used herds of sheep. Sonderaktion Brgerbrukeller in Ldz Voivodeship On June 22, 1941, Nazi Germany invaded Belarusian SSR and Nowogrdek was occupied on July 4. Homes were expropriated tohouse German occupying forces. Jews who lived in Nowo-Belica, on the left bank of the Soz River, were placed in adifferent ghetto. These Polish elites were regarded as Polish masters, an undesirable trait that might cause Poles todisobey their German masters. Following encirclement battles, all of the present-day Belarus territory was occupied bythe Nazi Germany bythe end of August 1941. () The General Government is our work force reservoir for lowgrade work (brick plants, road building, etc.,etc.). The commanders of the operation carried out these instructions. Some recent estimates raise the number of Belarusians who perished in War to3 million 650 thousand people, unlike the former 2.2 million.
In July 1941, in the wake of the German occupation of the western parts of the Soviet Union, Wilhelm Kube was appointed General-Commissar for Generalbezirk Weiruthenien (Belarus), with his headquarters in Minsk. After the execution, Sister M. Malgorzata Banas, the communitys sole surviving member, located the place of the martyrdom, and remained the guardian of their common grave until her own death in 1966. Sonderaktion Tschenstochau in Czestochowa The formation was responsible for many massacres and due toits bad reputation was dissolved byNazi authorities after the September Campaign. Hitler himself decreed: , Auf direkten Befehl von Adolf Hitler , ausgefhrt von Reinhard Heydrichs Bro des Referats Tannenberg zusammen mit Heinrich Himmlers eingerichtetem Reichssicherheitshauptamt (RSHA), wurden Polen aus der Intelligenz und Eliten zusammengetrieben,  und ohne jeder ein ordnungsgemes Verfahren durch die SS - Einsatzgruppen in Dutzenden von entfernten Standorten wie den Wald Massaker in Pianica und Schwellkrper Tal des Todes . But in most cases people were used, on an ever larger scale. 60 MILLION CONGRESS GLOBAL POLONIA SUMMIT IN MIAMI, FLORIDA. Run, the faster, the better, he used tosay. In retaliation, the SS killed more than 1,000 male citizens of Minsk, though SS leader Heinrich Himmler reportedly said the assassination was ablessing since Kube did not support some of the harsh measures mandated bythe SS. All the children perished in the sand. On 22 September 1943, Kube was assassinated in his Minsk apartment. Zu den Teilnehmern am Massenmord in Pianica gehrten: Der Inhalt ist unter der CC BY-SA 3.0-Lizenz verfugbar (sofern nicht anders angegeben). After the mass shooting, the police actively searched for the hiding Jews and were distinctive in their cruelty, compared tothe Germans Sonderaktion Krakau 183 professors from Jagiellonian University were deported toSachsenhausen, 19.07. But in the meantime this method had become routine also outside the scope of major actions.
Once beyond Minsk, these 6,624 Jews were taken in trucks tothe nearby village of Tuchinka and shot. The next stage was separating the Jews and establishing aghetto. Only men able towork were let out of the church, women only if they left their children behind. Maria Wardzyska, By rok 1939 Operacja Niemieckiej Policji bezpieczestwa w Polsce. Most of the victims were women and children, as the male population of the villages had been evacuated or drafted into the Red Army or was with the partisans. His death was caused byabomb hidden in ahot water bottle, which was placed in his bed byamaid, Jelena Mazanik. Those not killed were sent into slave labor. After awhile, police, composed of locals, and aminimal convoy, led these remaining Jews out of the ghetto totheir place of death. The Red Army was surrounded, what is known as the Nowogrdek Cauldron. He was delegated with the duties of the Generalkommissar for Belarus on October 27, 1943 after Wilhelm Kube was killed byabomb in Minsk on October 23. Kriegsgefangene sowie viele polnische Intellektuelle und Gemeindevorsteher wurden ermordet. Communists and their sympathisers were killed or imprisoned; thousands were forced into slave labour, both locally and in Germany. Gottberg said in an order In the evacuated areas all people are in future fair game. He was delegated with the duties of the Generalkommissar for Belarus on October 27, 1943 after Wilhelm Kube was killed byabomb in Minsk on October 23. Minsk was the site of one of the largest Nazi-run ghettos in World War II, the Minsk Ghetto, which held over 100,000 Jews. Conscription lists (Sonderfahndungsbuch Polen), prepared byGermans before the war, identified more than 61,000 members of the Polish elite: activists, intelligentsia, scholars, actors, former officers, and others, who were tobe interned or shot. This included former Communist Party of Belarus, Soviet and Komsomol workers, or simply healthy men, and sometimes women. Mazanik escaped the reprisals and joined the partisans. Such atactic was successful (without much exertion of force) in places where the liquidation of Jews was carried out early September, OctoberNovember 1941. At least 5,295 Belarusian settlements were destroyed and their inhabitants killed (out of 9200 settlements that were burned or otherwise destroyed in Belarus during World War II). Bei einem hnlichen Massenmord in der Nhe von Chojnice, bekannt als "Choinice Valley of Death" ( polnisch : Choinicka Dolina mierci), wurden zwischen 1939 und 1945 2000 Brger aus Chojnice ermordet. In September 1941, 200 ghetto residents were transferred toMonastyrek. Bythat time, it had been converted into amore organized force, while the Germans, experienced agreater need for apersonal cadre of executioners, as more people were needed at the Eastern Front. Oskar Dirlewangers corresponding order of May 25, 1943 had read: The rest of the Jews were crushed and deprived of the will tolive women, children, and the elderly was killed with the Nazis bare hands (in Dobrush, Chechersk, Zytkowicze).  Nach offiziellen Kriterien umfasste die polnische "Intelligenz" alle Personen mit mittlerer oder hherer Bildung, Priester, Lehrer, rzte, Zahnrzte, Tierrzte, erfahrene Militroffiziere , Brokraten, Mitglieder der polnischen Verwaltung, Polizei, mittlere und groe Geschftsleute und Kaufleute, mittelgro und groGrundbesitzer , Schriftsteller, Journalisten und Zeitungsredakteure .