from the industry for a Stinger replacement, Russian Air Strike on Syria Kills Seven: Monitor, Japan Defense Report Sounds Alarm on Russia, Threats to Taiwan, Ukraine War Must End to Prevent Nuclear Abyss: Lukashenko, US, Allies Discuss Western Jets for Ukraine: USAF Chief, US Army Buys Hummer All-Electric Vehicle for Testing, Evaluation, US Army Awards Lockheed Stryker-Mounted Electronic Warfare Contract, Raytheon to Install Electronic Warfare Systems on Australian Bushmasters, Raytheon to Build Counter-Drone Tech Facility in Scotland, Russia Says Military Aims Expanding in Ukraine, Pummels Kharkiv, US Air Force Testing Autonomous Pilot Tech on C-130J Transport Aircraft, Rheinmetall to Upgrade NH90 Sea Lion Naval Helicopter Simulators, China Reveals Disposable Long-Range Nuclear Reactor Torpedo Design, French Commander Accuses Wagner of Preying on Mali, Malaysia to Pick S.Korean FA-50 Fighter Jet Over Indian Tejas: Report, Fincantieri Begins Construction of Italys Second Vulcano-Class Logistics Ship. Open the weapon-round container and remove the weapon. Weapon "warmup" occurs within a period of 3 to 5 seconds, during which time certain components are brought up to the mechanical and electrical conditions required for system operation. Remove the expended BCU from the gripstock within 3 minutes to prevent damage to the BCU receptacle. Remember the missile is classified and should not be left alone. If you would like to republish please give the photographer appropriate credit. The army plans to begin design and development of the replacement in 2023. With the exception of the sun, the engine exhaust or tailpipe of the target is usually the smallest and hottest object in the environment and, therefore, will be tracked by the missile seeker. missile hellfire specifications apache gunship fire figure flightsimbooks With the left hand, raise and lock the sight assembly into position. Western countries have sent the shoulder-fired anti-aircraft missile to Ukraine in thousands since the war broke out in late February. After a target has been visually acquired and tentatively identified, the gunner must track the target to enable the missile to lock on the target IR. Leave the firing site without passing in front of, over, or behind the weapon. The atmosphere is not completely transparent to IR. The Stinger missile is launched by a small launch motor that pushes it a safe distance from the operator before engaging the mainflight motor, both solid propellant rocket motors provided by Aerojet Rocketdyne. The IR acquisition signal is electronically processed and presented to the gunner as an audible signal. . IFF responses have the following meanings: Depending upon the IFF response and the rules of engagement, either disengage or proceed to engage the target. When firing, hold your breath until you release the trigger so as to avoid inhaling toxic fumes. The gunner must discern the audio signal as soon as possible to permit early engagement of incoming aircraft. The weapon must be activated and pointed at the target and the IR from the target must be strong enough to activate the acquisition indicator circuits. The US Army has awarded Raytheon Missiles & Defense a $624 million contract to replenish the Stinger missiles delivered to Ukraine to defend itself against the Russian invasion. Grasp it only by the heat-insulated cap when you remove it. Activate the weapon as soon as required by the firing doctrine. Both ends should be pointed away from personnel and the front end should be elevated (approximately 20). Keep tracking the target until the missile lanuches. The missile senses IR emitted by a target by optically focusing this energy on the surface of an infrared detector in the missile seeker system. The detector cell is cooled by the coolant in the BCU. Typical secondary sources are bodies of water, bare hillsides, and white clouds. stinger terrence fires howard The Stinger missile seeker is sensitive to radiations in the infrared frequency spectrum and uses these radiations from the target as the source to guide itself to target intercept. Move the weapon, using the target as a starting point, and make two loops as in a figure 8. Stinger Based Systems, a division of the Armys cruise missile defense system unit, test-fired more than 30 Stingers at aerial and fixed targets on the bases range throughout the week. If the tone does not get louder upon uncaging, release the UNCAGING switch and continue to track the aircraft in the range ring, allowing it to get closer. Certain gases in the atmosphere, primarily carbon dioxide and water vapor, absorb energy in the IR frequency spectrum. which pertains to intellectual property restrictions (e.g., copyright and This angle compensates for the effects of gravity on the missile prior to flight motor ignition. This photograph is considered public domain and has been cleared for release. The following explains in words and figures how to place the target within the rear sight reticle prior to firing. If IR still cannot be acquired, keep "figure eighting" until the IR tone from the target gets strong enough to lock on to. You accept the use of cookies or other identifiers by closing or dismissing this notice, clicking a link, button, or by continuing to browse this website. The sun's IR is also reflected from objects, causing these objects to become secondary sources of background radiation (false targets). A clear tone should be received when the aircraft enters the range ring on the sweep (see illustration below). As a starting point, assume that the Stinger team is in position with its basic load of weapons. All substances radiate IR energy, the amount depending largely on their temperature. Swing the weapon in U-shaped movements through the target until the IR tone gets stronger. This activates the BCU. Gen. Neil Thurgood, the program executive officer missiles and space, fires an FIM-92 Stinger during missile test firing March 14 at Eglin Air Force Base, Fla. Prior to engaging targets, the Stinger weapon must be readied for action. Next, position the target image in the center of the range ring. This requires the gunner to hear low level signals in contrast to background noise. One "beep" means a possible friend (Mode 3). Mark the defective weapon's location and then notify the Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) unit. The manufacturer has been struggling to restart missile production since it received a $340 million Stinger order from the Pentagon last year on behalf of a foreign client. While still pressing the UNCAGING switch, squeeze and hold the firing trigger. Infrared is the band of wavelengths in the electromagnetic frequency spectrum just below visible light (see Electromagnetic Spectrum illustration). Listen for the IFF response. The Stinger IR seeker can discriminate between radiation from a small point source, such as the tailpipe of a jet, and large background sources, such as clouds and terrain. When the target is low on the horizon, sweep the target looking through the front sight ring. Continue to track the target for an additional 3 to 5 seconds, keeping the firing trigger and uncaging switch depressed. The US has committed 1,400 Stingers to Kyiv. (Chapter 4 discusses when to challenge and under what conditions.). The weapon is readied for firing by performing the following steps: When the target is visually detected, point the launcher toward the target, sight over the sight assembly, and then look through the peep sight. 1942-2022 Aerojet Rocketdyne. Raytheon CEO Greg Hayes was quoted as saying in late April that the company has a very limited stock of material for Stinger production.. Move the left hand forward and grasp the UNCAGING switch but do not press the switch. Two conditions are required for the missile seeker to acquire the target's IR. Brig. The IFF with interconnecting cable is worn on the equipment belt or slung by a strap. This signal indicates that the seeker has acquired the target. The other end of the cable is clipped to the jacket. https://www.dimoc.mil/resources/limitations, Always verify tone, when a target is near a background IR source, by one of these two methods before uncaging the gyro. Challenge the aircraft if it has not already been identified. We use cookies or similar technologies on our website to analyze our traffic. Leave the firing site quickly to avoid fire from the enemy. When the target is farther above the horizon, use the figure 8 method. Gyro spin-up noise, which indicates the system is becoming operational, should be heard. This lets the gunner know that the seeker has locked onto the aircraft and is tracking it. Do not handle the used BCU for 30 minutes after it has been removed. Remove the BCU. Then, move the aircraft from the range ring B to either the left, center, or right lower reticles C, D, or E. All fixed-wing aircraft and helicopters coming from the left, or slightly from the left, are placed in the left reticle C. All fixed-wing aircraft directly incoming or outgoing are placed in the center reticle D. All fixed-wing aircraft and helicopters coming from the right, or slightly from the right, are placed in the right reticle E. Directly incoming/outgoing or hovering helicopters and vertical take-off and landing (VTOL) aircraft are placed in the left lead reticle. The general fired the first test shot of the day and connected with an aerial target drone. Click here to submit an Op-Ed, Raytheon to Produce 1,300 Stingers for US Army, Raytheon Missiles & Defense a $624 million contract to replenish the, The latest contract is being paid for out of the $40 billion, as saying in late April that the company has a very limited stock of material for Stinger production., said, Were aligned with the US Army on a plan that ensures we fulfill our current foreign military sale order, while replenishing Stingers provided to Ukraine and accelerating production.. Remove the IFF cable by pulling straight down on the quick-release loop attached to the IFF cable connector. / Privacy Statement / Legal Information / Terms of Use /Ethics, Compliance & Safety Helpline Submittal Form or call 855-346-5043, Ethics, Compliance & Safety Helpline Submittal Form. Placing an incoming/outgoing or hovering helicopter in the right lead reticle is acceptable, but not recommended. For a hangfire, misfire, or dud missile, personnel should evacuate the area around the missile for a distance of not less than 1,200 feet. Water vapor content varies widely with geographic location and local weather conditions. With the left hand, insert the IFF interconnecting cable into the gripstock. Meanwhile, the US Army has solicited information from the industry for a Stinger replacement. When target IR cannot be acquired, or when trying to separate target IR tone from other tones (because of the background radiation), sweeping the target or the figure eight (8) method should be used. trademark, including the use of official emblems, insignia, names and slogans), warnings Remove the front end cap with the left hand. The missile should be guarded and kept under observation and should not be approached for at least 3 hours. The launch tube will be destroyed at a convenient time. When the target provides sufficient IR to the seeker, an acquisition signal is generated. When the tactical situation permits, remove the gripstock assembly from the expended launch tube. Further, any commercial or non-commercial use of this photograph or any other If, after that time the missile has not ejected, release the firing trigger and uncaging switch. Superelevation is the elevation angle that is added to the missile line of sight. Place the weapon-round on the ground (or place in rack during annual service practice). Some sources of secondary background radiation are shown in Background Radiations illustration. Then, release the safety and actuator device. Target tracking occurs prior to weapon activation and continues throughout the engagement sequence. Before pressing the firing trigger, make sure that IR tone can still be heard. The Defense Post aims to publish a wide range of high-quality opinion and analysis from a diverse array of people do you want to send us yours? https://www.dimoc.mil/resources/limitations, Hosted by Defense Media Activity - WEB.mil. A hangfire is a delay in the functioning of a weapon-round. It is ejected from the launch tube assembly, travels a short distance, then falls to the ground. Four of the weapons should have BCUs installed. Place the expended weapon on the ground (or back in its container, with its sight assembly and IFF assembly closed). After insuring that the seeker has acquired the aircraft, press the UNCAGING switch with the thumb, hold it in, and continue to track the aircraft. Then the technique of fire applicable to the type of aircraft being engaged is applied. When the seeker acquires the IR energy emitted by a target, acquisition signals are produced by the weapon which inform the gunner that the target has been detected. All rights reserved. Right or left lead is required for all targets except those fixed-wing targets directly incoming or outgoing. The army plans to begin design and development of the replacement in 2023. DoD image must be made in compliance with guidance found at Check to be sure a BCU is in place. In this case, also, mark the location and then call the EOD unit. It can last up to several minutes. If the exhaust plume visibly persists at your position, move away from the plume before breathing again (reference TM 9-1425-429-12). Raytheon had not produced the missile in 18 years due to a lack of demand from the Department of Defense. If the IR tone is weak or distorted, the seeker may be locking on the background instead of the target. These weapons are in the metal containers/ready racks on the team trailer. If the weapon is aimed away from the target when the gyro is caged, the tone should decrease. regarding use of images of identifiable personnel, appearance of endorsement, and related matters. The stance requires that the left foot be placed directly toward the aircraft and the body be leaned slightly forward. All U.S. services and 29 other countries have deployed the Stinger missile, launching from a number of platforms: the shoulder-launched Man-Portable Air Defense System (MANPADS), Avenger (HMMWV), the AH-64E Apache helicopter, and Special Operations Black Hawks (MH-60). Lead is the angle between the point of aim and the target. The audible signal clarity and intensity is directly related to seeker acquisition of the aircraft. The latest contract is being paid for out of the $40 billion Ukraine Supplemental funding. After uncaging, the IR tone usually gets steadier and louder. Post firing procedures include the following: The BCU becomes extremely hot following activation. Press the device forward, outward, and down with the right thumb until a click is heard. Release the trigger and uncaging switch 3 seconds after launch. Target tracking is further discussed in chapter 6. Firing doctrine is discussed in chapter 6. It can be reused on another missile-round. (U.S. Air Force photo/Samuel King Jr.). Moreover, as the missile was not in production for almost two decades, some of the missile components are no longer commercially available, forcing the company to redesign some of the missiles electronics. Raytheon president Wes Kremer said, Were aligned with the US Army on a plan that ensures we fulfill our current foreign military sale order, while replenishing Stingers provided to Ukraine and accelerating production., The funding will be used to enhance Stingers producibility in an effort to meet the urgent need for replenishment.. Weapon activation occurs when the safety and actuator device is operated. Track the target by keeping it in the range ring. IR energy has properties similar to light; that is, it travels in a straight line and at the same speed as light. A misfire is a complete failure to fire. Because the amount of carbon dioxide in the air is fairly constant, its effect on detection range is consistent and need not be considered by the gunner. If a missile does not fire, the following steps should be taken: A dud is a missile whose flight motor does not ignite. The "fire-and-forget" Stinger missile employs a passive infrared seeker to home in on its airborne target. Listen for distinct acquisition tone (and discriminate between target and background, if necessary). The stance and upper body are determined by the aircraft's direction of flight. First, to superelevate, raise the front of the weapon A. Place the weapon on the right shoulder, grasping the pistol grip with the right hand to provide support. Two "beeps" mean a positive friend (Mode 4). Do not point the top of the BCU toward the skin, as high-pressure gas may still be escaping. The contract covers the production of 1,300 Stingers and the provisions for equipment and engineering support to address obsolescence and accelerate the missiles production. Then press the UNCAGING switch again.