Some speculate that he intended on producing a critical Greek text or that he wanted to beat the Complutensian Polyglot into print, but there is no evidence to support. The term textus receptus may also designate any text of a literary work which is generally accepted. The Colossian Heresy Revisited: Has the Prophetic Stream Lost Its Focus? It is not to be conceived that the original editors of the [Greek] New Testament were wholly destitute of plan in selecting those manuscripts, out of which they were to form the text of their printed editions. In short, the Textus Receptus represents the God-guided revision of the majority text. (Yale University Divinity School), M.Div. The complete NKJV Bible was published in 1982. I have already almost finished emending him by collating a large number of ancient manuscripts, and this I am doing at enormous personal expense. 1962-1982 (Compiled in one volume in 1996), Aiming to be the first modern public domain translation, with the NT edited from the public domain, Also called "Inspired version of the Bible" by Mormons, The gospels were originally from the Vulgate, then the translation was re-started using the Greek, Two Nineteenth Century Versions of the New Testament. (Westcott-Hort, Weiss, Tischendorf Greek texts), First English Bible with whole of Old Testament translated direct from Hebrew texts, Masoretic Text, Greek New Testament of Erasmus, the Vulgate, and the, From the original Hebrew, Aramaic, and Greek, From the original Hebrew, Aramaic, and Greek, with influence from the French. If you enjoyed this article, subscribe to receive more just like it via e-mail. Bengel divided manuscripts into families and subfamilies and favoured the principle of lectio difficilior potior ("the more difficult reading is the stronger"). Society of Biblical Literature. [] With respect to Manuscripts, it is indisputable that he was acquainted with every variety which is known to us, having distributed them into two principal classes, one of which corresponds with the Complutensian edition, the other with the Vatican manuscript. 2. In his Novum Testamentum Graecum, cum lectionibus variantibus MSS (Oxford 1707) he reprinted the unchanged text of the Editio Regia, but in the index he enumerated 30,000 textual variants. [21], Hills was the first textual critic to defend Textus Receptus. The latter two are updates of the original KJV. [24] Scrivener showed that some texts were incorporated from the Vulgate (for example, Acts 9:6; Rev. She also hosted the television programs The Word with Verna Linzey and The Holy Spirit Today with Dr. Verna Linzey.. His object was to restore the text to the form in which it had been read in the Ancient Church in about AD 380. This page has been accessed 23,989 times.

He used the oldest known Greek and Latin manuscripts. Westcott and Hort published The New Testament in the Original Greek in 1881 in which they rejected what they considered to be the dated and inadequate Textus Receptus. Thus, from what was a more or less casual phrase advertising the edition (what modern publishers might call a "blurb"), there arose the designation ", This page was last edited on 18 July 2022, at 12:53. Then, he polished the Latin, declaring, "It is only fair that Paul should address the Romans in somewhat better Latin. (AD157), the ItalicBible (AD157) etc. [6], Typographical errors, attributed to the rush to complete the work, abounded in the published text. "[3], While his intentions for publishing a fresh Latin translation are clear, it is less clear why he included the Greek text. Daniel Wallace, "Some Second Thoughts on the Majority Text", Bibliotheca Sacra, JulySeptember, 1989, p. 276. [14] Christian Frederick Matthaei (17441811) was a Griesbach opponent. Uses various methods, such as "emphatic idiom" and special diacritical marks, to bring out nuances of the underlying Greek, Hebrew, and Aramaic texts. Masoretic Text, Erasmus' third NT edition (1522), Martin Luther's 1522 German Bible. Tyndale then revised it by 1534. rendering Jew as white man; Gentile as negro; Ephesus as Birmingham, Alabama; Rome as Washington, DC; Jerusalem as Atlanta, Georgia, Epistles of Romans, 1st and 2nd Corinthians, and 1st and 2nd Thessalonians, by Scottish scholar, The Fresh Agreement: God's Contract with Humanity, 3rd edition of Robert Etienne (1550) with several modifications when warranted by manuscript evidence. He introduced the practice of indicating the ancient manuscripts by capital Roman letters and the later manuscripts by Arabic numerals. Daniel B. Wallace enumerated that in 1,838 places (1,005 are translatable) the Textus Receptus differs from the Byzantine text-type.[25]. The Received Text. The Textus Receptus was mainly established on a basis of manuscripts of the Byzantine text-type, also called 'Majority text', and usually is identified with it by its followers. His graduate education includes degree Antipas L. Harris, D.Min. 17:4-8). The preface reads, Textum ergo habes, nunc ab omnibus receptum: in quo nihil immutatum aut corruptum damus ("so you hold the text, now received by all, in which (is) nothing corrupt"). New Testament Manuscripts in the Byzantine tradition. These fathers come from as early as the late first century and the middle ages. He used manuscripts: 1, 1rK, 2e, 2ap, 4ap, 7, 817. She wrote The Baptism with the Holy Spirit, The Gifts of the Spirit, and Spirit Baptism. Sword Bible, King's Word Press, Inc. Retrieved 9 January 2012. Recognitum et Emendatum. Enter your, Bible Translations: The Three Major Textus Receptus Translations, Providential Preservation of the Textus Receptus, Maxwell Leadership Bible, reviewed by Dony Donev, John MacArthurs Strange Fire, reviewed by Craig S. Keener, A Pentecostal Appropriation of the Wesleyan Quadrilateral, Six Ways the Holy Spirit Will Communicate With You, by Charles Carrin, Agnes Sanford and Her Companions, reviewed by Jon Ruthven | Pentecostal Theology, Agnes Sanford: Apostle of Healing and First Theologian of the Charismatic Renewal, Part 1, by William L. De Arteaga, Clearing the Smoke, Fanning the Flames: An Interview with Michael Brown : The Pneuma Review, Jon Ruthvens Further reflections on Strangers to Fire, a response to John MacArthur : The Pneuma Review, Michael Browns Authentic Fire, reviewed by Loren Sandford : The Pneuma Review, John MacArthurs Strange Fire, Reviewed by R. Loren Sandford, What I Like and Dont Like About the Modern Charismatic Movement : The Pneuma Review. Although others have defended it per se, they are not acknowledged textual critics (such as Theodore Letis and David Hocking) or their works are not on a scholarly level (such as Terence H. Brown and D. A. The mother and son Bible translator team of Verna and James Linzey discuss the major translations of the Bible that have been developed from the Greek New Testament known as the Textus Receptus. The name TextusReceptus was first used, to refer to editions of the Greek NewTestament published by the Elzevir Brothers in 1633. Incomplete translation.

5,800+ Greek manuscripts of the NewTestament still in existence today. Hills argues that the principle of providentially-preserved transmission guarantees that the printed Textus Receptus must be the closest text to the Greek autographs and so he rejects readings in the Byzantine Majority Text where they are not maintained in the Textus Receptus.

For Hills, the task of biblical scholarship is to identify the particular line of preserved transmission through which God is acting; a line that he sees in the specific succession of manuscript copying, textual correction and printing, which culminated in the Textus Receptus and the King James Bible. The Tyndale Bible, which included the Pentateuch and Jonah, became the basis of the Authorized KJV, which would not be published until almost a century later. [20], Hence the true text is found not only in the text of the majority of the New Testament manuscripts but more especially in the Textus Receptus and in faithful translations of the Textus Receptus, such as the King James Version. It has now been calculated that there are more than one million quotations of the NewTestament by the fathers. TextusReceptus agrees with the earliest versions of the Bible: Peshitta (AD150) OldLatinVulgate Restored Greek syntax. English by WilliamTyndale and is the textual base for the BishopsBible, the GenevaBible and the Burgon supported his arguments with the opinion that the Codex Alexandrinus and Codex Ephraemi were older than the Sinaiticus and the Vaticanus; and also that the Peshitta translation into Syriac (which supports the Byzantine Text) originated in the 2nd century. , Brenton's English Translation of the Septuagint, Review of The Comprehensive New Testament, God's New Covenant: A New Testament Translation, McCord's New Testament Translation of the Everlasting Gospel, Third Millennium Bible (The New Authorized Version), Jewish Publication Society of America Version, James Murdock's Translation of the Syriac Peshitta, New International Version Inclusive Language Edition, New Jewish Publication Society of America Version, New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures, Revised Standard Version Catholic Edition, The Work of God's Children Illustrated Bible, Bibelarchiv Vegelahn: English Bible translations, List of English Bible Versions, Translations, and Paraphrases, Sinaiticus.Net - Exposing Codex Sinaiticus, 191 Variations in Scriveners 1881 Greek New Testament from Beza's 1598 Textus Receptus, List of Bible verses not included in the ESV, Revelation 16:5 and the Triadic Declaration - A defense of the reading of shalt be in the Authorized Version, http://textus-receptus.com/wiki/List_of_English_Bible_translations, Various passages, including some of the Psalms, English Translation of the Nestle Aland 27th Edition of the Greek New Testament, OT was translated in stages, with editions progressively replacing books in the Challoner revision of the Douay-Rheims; when complete, it was published in 1970 as the, modern Black American idiomatic, e.g. in Novum Testamentum", The New Testament In The Original Greek (New York 1882), "Far Eastern Bible College - A HISTORY OF MY DEFENCE OF THE KING JAMES VERSION", A Plain Introduction to the Criticism of the New Testament, "The Text of the Rheims and Douay Version of Holy Scripture", Die Textgrundlage des Neues Testaments, 2006, Daniel Heinsius and the Textus Receptus of the New Testament, The Majority Text Compared to the Received Text, Comparison of the Textus Receptus with other manuscript editions. His major w Journal of Ministry Resources and Theology for Pentecostal and Charismatic Ministries & Leaders, Subscribe to receive our weekly newsletter. Erasmus adjusted the text in many places to correspond with readings found in the Vulgate or as quoted in the Church Fathers; consequently, although the Textus Receptus is classified by scholars as a late Byzantine text, it differs in nearly 2,000 readings from the standard form of that text-type, as represented by the "Majority Text" of Hodges and Farstad (Wallace, 1989). Minuscule 1rK, Erasmus's only text source for the Book of Revelation, is a manuscript of the Andreas commentary and not a continuous text manuscript. NovumInstrumentumomne, TextusReceptus was refined by RobertEstienne [Stephanus] in 1550, TextusReceptus was further refined by TheodoreBeza in 1598, TextusReceptus was again edited by F.H.A. Revision of the New International Version. [8], With the third edition of Erasmus' Greek text (1522) the Comma Johanneum was included because "Erasmus chose to avoid any occasion for slander rather than persisting in philological accuracy" even though he remained "convinced that it did not belong to the original text of l John. Masoretic Text, Textus Receptus, Tyndale 1526 NT, some Erasmus manuscripts, and Bezae 1598 TR. [17], The Textus Receptus was defended by John William Burgon in his The Revision Revised (1881) and also by Edward Miller in A Guide to the Textual Criticism of the New Testament (1886).

(Emory University), is the president-dean of Jakes Divinity School and associate pasto Craig S. Keener, Ph.D. (Duke University), is F. M. and Ada Thompson Professor of Biblical Studies at Asbury Theological Seminary in Wilmore, Kentucky. He goes so far as to conclude that Erasmus must have been providentially guided when he introduced Latin Vulgate readings into his Greek text;[19] and even argues for the authenticity of the Comma Johanneum. This was the 1769 KJV update edited by Dr. Benjamin Blayney. Revision of the Revised Standard Version.

KingJamesBible. Is the Received Text Based on a Few Late Manuscripts? He was an ardent advocate of the supremacy of the Textus Receptus over all other editions of the Greek New Testament, and he argued that the first editors of the printed Greek New Testament intentionally selected those texts because of their superiority and disregarded other texts, which represented other text-types because of their inferiority. The biblical Textus Receptus constituted the translation-base for the original German Luther Bible, the translation of the New Testament into English by William Tyndale, the King James Version, the Spanish Reina-Valera translation, the Czech Bible of Kralice, and most Reformation-era New Testament translations throughout Western and Central Europe. A Voice In The Wilderness Holy Scriptures, Released into the public domain by The Work of God's Children (nonprofit corporation). Replaces traditional ecclessiastical terminology such as "church", "bishop" and "baptise" with alternative translations such as "congregation", "overseer" and "immerse". The origin of the term Textus Receptus comes from the publisher's preface to the 1633 edition produced by Bonaventure and his nephew Abraham Elzevir who were partners in a printing business at Leiden. This update is the edition commonly used today. Consequently, most modern scholars consider his text to be of dubious quality. 1500 and 1900. Tregelles, Tischendorf, Westcott and Hort), Old Testament completed in 1582, released in two parts in 1609 and 1610. In that judgement, they are criticised by Edward F. Hills, who argues that the principle that God provides truth through scriptural revelation also must imply that God must ensure a preserved transmission of the correct revealed text, continuing into the Reformation era of biblical translation and printing. Paraphrase of the Jewish Publication Society of America Version (Old Testament), and from the original Greek (New Testament). TextusReceptus is untainted with Egyptian philosophy, heresies and unbelief. Along with the numerous other English translations from the previous four centuries, the NKJV was based on the TR, but more strictly speaking the Byzantine-Majority text tradition. [1] It was the most commonly used text type for Protestant denominations. The preface to the second edition, which appeared in 1633, makes the boast that "[the reader has] the text now received by all, in which we give nothing changed or corrupted". "[5] Erasmus' new work was published by Froben of Basel in 1516, becoming the first published Greek New Testament, the Novum Instrumentum omne, diligenter ab Erasmo Rot. The KJV 1611 was partly in response to the Catholic Douay-Rheims edition as well as motivation for a political Bible to bring together different religious factions under the Church of England. Erasmus had been working for years on two projects: a collation of Greek texts and a fresh Latin New Testament.

Griesbach. Erasmus also lacked a complete copy of the Book of Revelation and translated the last six verses back into Greek from the Latin Vulgate to finish his edition. In 1512, he began his work on the Latin New Testament. [26] He suggested 150 corrections in the Textus Receptus Gospel of Matthew alone.[27]. Robert Estienne, known as Stephanus (15031559), a printer from Paris, edited the Greek New Testament four times, in 1546, 1549, 1550 and 1551, the last in Geneva. He enlarged the Apparatus by considering more citations from the Fathers, and various versions, such as the Gothic, the Armenian, and the Philoxenian. TextusReceptus strongly upholds the Christian faith. The name has been retrospectively applied to all the printed Greek texts of the The Kingdom New Testament: A Contemporary Translation, Harper Collins, 2011, ISBN 9780062064912. He considered the 30,000 variants in Mill's edition a danger to Holy Scripture and called for defending the Textus Receptus against these variants.[13]. "[4] He further demonstrated the reason for the inclusion of the Greek text when defending his work: "But one thing the facts cry out, and it can be clear, as they say, even to a blind man, that often through the translator's clumsiness or inattention the Greek has been wrongly rendered; often the true and genuine reading has been corrupted by ignorant scribes, which we see happen every day, or altered by scribes who are half-taught and half-asleep. J. J. Griesbach (17451812) combined the principles of Bengel and Wettstein. 22:28; 23:25; 27:52; 28:3, 4, 19, 20; Mark 7:18, 19, 26; 10:1; 12:22; 15:46; Luke 1:16, 61; 2:43; 9:1, 15; 11:49; John 1:28; 10:8; 13:20, Erasmus followed the readings of Minuscule 1 (Caesarean text-type). Constantin von Tischendorf's Editio Octava Critica Maior was based on Codex Sinaiticus. Masoretic Text, Nestle-Aland Greek New Testament (based on Westcott-Hort, Weiss and Tischendorf, 1862). Johann Albrecht Bengel (16871752) edited in 1725 Prodromus Novi Testamenti Graeci Rect Cautque Adornandi and in 1734 Novum Testamentum Graecum. [7], Erasmus had been studying Greek New Testament manuscripts for many years, in the Netherlands, France, England and Switzerland, noting their many variants, but had only six Greek manuscripts immediately accessible to him in Basel. A Wiki Style site promoting the Textus Receptus and the King James Version, The first tome or volume of the Paraphrase of Erasmus vpon the newe testamente, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Textus_Receptus&oldid=1098990194, Articles with German-language sources (de), Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License 3.0, "In 1624, Bona venture and Abraham Elzevir, two enterprising printers at Leiden, published a small and convenient edition of the Greek Testament, the text of which was taken mainly from Beza's smaller 1565 edition. Tyndale's other Old Testament work went into the Matthew's Bible (1537). "A Scripture project to rediscover the story of the Bible" (ISBN 1418534390), Masoretic Text, Westcott and Hort 1881 and Tregelles 1857, Revision of the American Standard Version, by Ronald L. Conte Jr., in the public domain. Various manuscripts and critical editions of the Greek text. TextusReceptus is not corrupted by the deletions, additions and amendments of the MinorityText. He wrote, "There remains the New Testament translated by me, with the Greek facing, and notes on it by me. Then in 1979, Thomas Nelson publishers asked 130 scholars to edit a New Testament update of the Authorized KJV, eliminating much of the archaic language. 3. He published in Basel Prolegomena ad Novi Testamenti Graeci (1731). Masoretic Text, the Greek New Testament of Erasmus, the Vulgate, the Luther Bible, and a French version. 1. Review of The Comprehensive New Testament, 2009. However, in addition, over many years, Erasmus had extensively annotated New Testament citations in early Fathers, such as Augustine and Ambrose, whose biblical quotations more frequently conformed to the Western text-type; and he drew extensively on these citations (and also on the Vulgate) in support of his choice of Greek readings. He collected all the Vulgate manuscripts that he could find to create a critical edition. [2] Nevertheless, between the Tyndale Bible and Authorized KJV there were the Coverdale (1535), Matthew (1537), Taverner (1539), Great Bible (1539), Geneva Bible (1560), Bishops Bible (1568), and Douay-Rheims (NT in 1582 and OT in 1609-10). The text originated with the first printed Greek New Testament, published in 1516, a work undertaken in Basel by the Dutch Catholic scholar, priest and monk Desiderius Erasmus. The Work of God's Children Illustrated Bible. Masoretic Text, Nestle-Aland/United Bible Society Greek New Testament, New International Version (simplified syntax, but loss of conjunctions obscures meanings). Thousands of Greek manuscripts and fragments (not the least of which the 900+ Dead Sea Scrolls discovered in 1945) had been discovered in the last two centuries so textual scholars had the opportunity to reconstruct earlier and better readings of the TR using the Byzantine-Majority text-type manuscripts. F. H. A. Scrivener (18131891) remarked that at Matt. In addition to the full revision with respect to the English language, it standardized the KJV punctuation and spelling. Textus Receptus agrees with the vast majority of the citations from scripture by the early church fathers. Frederick von Nolan, a 19th-century historian and Greek and Latin scholar, spent 28 years attempting to trace the Textus Receptus to apostolic origins. This page was last modified on 10 March 2016, at 10:52. He is author of many books. but it was not published until eight years later, Erasmus' was the second Greek NewTestament collated and was published and printed in (1516). Developing an appreciation for how these Bible translations came into being starts more than 500 years ago. Johann Jakob Wettstein's apparatus was fuller than that of any previous editor. In the sequel it will appear, that they were not altogether ignorant of two classes of manuscripts; one of which contains the text which we have adopted from them; and the other that text which has been adopted by M. Copyright2022 MasonSoftTechnologyLtd, TextusReceptus was published by DesideriusErasmus in his 1516 edition of the Greek NewTestament: extusReceptus is the name given to a series of Byzantine based Greek texts of the NewTestament printed between Dean Burgon, a great influential supporter of the Textus Receptus, declared that the Textus Receptus needs correction. Griesbach distinguished a Western, an Alexandrian, and a Byzantine Recension. Scrivener in 1881. In 1516 a Dutch Roman Catholic monk, Desiderius Erasmus, compiled the first complete Greek New Testament from Byzantine text-type manuscripts. [12], Shortly after Mill published his edition, Daniel Whitby (16381725) attacked his work by asserting that the text of the New Testament had never been corrupted and thus equated autographs with the Textus Receptus. A concordance of every form of every Greek word was made and systematized and turned into English. (Boston University), S.T.M. Revision of the King James Version. The two words textum and receptum were modified from the accusative to the nominative case to render textus receptus. List of major textual variants in the New Testament, "Additional Annotations to the New Testament: With Seven Discourses; and an Appendix Entituled Examen Variantium Lectionum Johannis Millii, S.T.P. TextusReceptus contains the translation base for the first Greek translation of the NewTestament into It was not always easy for Erasmus to distinguish this manuscript's commentary text from its biblical source text. [11], John Mill (16451707) collated textual variants from 82 Greek manuscripts. Masoretic Text (Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia, 1983), Majority text (Hodges-Farstad, 1982). [18] However, both Burgon and Miller believed that although the Textus Receptus was to be preferred to the Alexandrian Text, it still required to be corrected in certain readings against the manuscript tradition of the Byzantine text.

Karl Lachmann (17931851) was the first who broke with the Textus Receptus. Westcott and Hort's Greek New Testament, Nestle-Aland Greek New Testament, Hebrew J documents, as well as various other families of Hebrew and Greek manuscripts, Revision of the King James Version, but with a, Masoretic Text (Biblia Hebraica), Textus Receptus Greek text, Popular Messianic Translation by the Institute for Scripture Research, Codex Vaticanus (according to the introduction in the reprint edition by S. F. Pells) of the Septuagint (but excluding the Apocrypha) and of the New Testament, Masoretic Text (Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia, 1983), Nestle-Aland Greek text. Revision of the Revised Standard Version. Masoretic Text, Textus Receptus (Estienne 1550). William L. De Arteaga, Ph.D., is known internationally as a Christian historian and expert on revivals and the rebirth and renewal of the Christian healing movement. same Byzantine text-type. Miller's arguments in favour of readings in the Textus Receptus were of the same kind. Rather, his motivation may have been simpler: he included the Greek text to prove the superiority of his Latin version. Over time, that term has been retroactively applied to Erasmus' editions, as his work served as the basis of the others. Their text is based mainly on Codex Vaticanus in the Gospels.[15]. Retrieved 9 January 2012. The Kingdom New Testament: A Contemporary Translation, New Testament, with Old Testament in translation. And he has specified the positive grounds on which he received the one and rejected the other. The Andreas text is recognised as related to the Byzantine text in Revelation; but most textual critics nevertheless consider it to be a distinct text-type. Vulgate, with influence from the original Hebrew, Aramaic, and Greek. A century later, the Oxford University Press produced a standard KJV text that would reflect a. more up to date English style for the 18th century. The edition of 1551 contains the Latin translation of Erasmus and the Vulgate. The edition was a sell-out commercial success and was reprinted in 1519, with most but not all of the typographical errors corrected. Amos Yong is Professor of Theology & Mission and director of the Center for Missiological Research at Fuller Theological Seminary, Pasadena. In 1526, William Tyndale translated Erasmus Greek New Testament into English. "[9] Popular demand for Greek New Testaments led to a flurry of further authorized and unauthorized editions in the early sixteenth century, almost all of which were based on Erasmus' work and incorporated his particular readings but typically also making a number of minor changes of their own.[10]. The first Greek NewTestament to be collated was the Complutensian Polyglot in (1514), He only had a half dozen manuscripts dating from the 13th century, and where he had gaps or lacunae in the manuscripts he used the Latin Vulgate to fill in those sections, especially the last six verses of Revelation. William Tyndales translation from the Textus Receptus comprises about 90% of the KJV and 80% of the RSV. [3], Tags: bible, major, receptus, textus, translations, About the Author: Verna M. Linzey (1919 2016), MA (Southwestern Assemblies of God University), DMin (Fuller Theological Seminary), was the chief editor of the New Tyndale Version Bible and a translator for the Modern English Version Bible. [1] In Elzevirs Greek NT published in 1633, the term Textus Receptus is used in the preface to provide appellation to the Greek NT published by Erasmus and then subsequently revised by Stephanus, Beza, and Elzevir. Retrieved 9 January 2012. The Byzantine text-type represents over 95% of the The Fresh Agreement brings the range and specificity of the modern vocabulary to the traditional Greek text. Erasmus did not invent the Textus Receptus, but simply collated a collection of what was already the vast majority of

Jelle Creemers: Theological Dialogue with Classical Pentecostals, A Keener Understanding of the Bible: The Jewish Context for the Book of Revelation. Had he barely undertaken to perpetuate the tradition on which he received the sacred text he would have done as much as could be required of him, and more than sufficient to put to shame the puny efforts of those who have vainly labored to improve upon his design. "[2] In the earlier phases of the project, he never mentioned a Greek text: "My mind is so excited at the thought of emending Jeromes text, with notes, that I seem to myself inspired by some god. The three major Bible translations based on the Textus Receptus are the Authorized King James Version (1611), the New King James Version (1982), and the Modern English Version (2014). First complete Bible printed in English (Early Modern English), Masoretic Text, various critical editions of the Greek text (i.a. [6] They all dated from the 12th Century or later, and only one came from outside the mainstream Byzantine tradition. Waite[22]).[23]. [16], Nor let it be conceived in disparagement of the great undertaking of Erasmus, that he was merely fortuitously right. 4. The whole Greek vocabulary was analyzed and translated, using a standard English equivalent for each Greek element. Textus Receptus (Latin: "received text") refers to all printed editions of the Greek New Testament from Erasmus' Novum Instrumentum omne (1516) to the 1633 Elzevir edition.