Child personality facets and overreactive parenting as predictors of aggression and rule-breaking trajectories from childhood to adolescence. Nelson, D. A., Yang, C., Coyne, S. M., Olsen, J. Further, other studies have shown that lower levels of school connectedness are positively correlated with aggressive behavior, while higher levels of school connectedness have important protective effects for adolescent development (Millings et al., 2012; Oldfield et al., 2018). doi: 10.1111/j.1532-7795.2009.00632.x, Marsh, H. W., Craven, R. G., Parker, P. D., Parada, R. H., Guo, J., Dicke, T., et al. [13] The opposite of emotion regulation is emotional dysregulation which occurs when problems arise in the emotional control process that result in the inability to process emotions in a healthy manner. The association of peer pressure and peer affiliation with the health risk behaviors of secondary school students in Hong Kong. Therefore, in this study, we propose the following hypothesis. They were requested to complete the anonymous questionnaires by themselves and were also told that they were free to withdraw any time during this study. School engagement: potential of the concept, state of the evidence. Adolesc. 44, 10711081. doi: 10.1016/j.adolescence.2017.07.007, Takahashi, A., Quadros, I. M., de Almeida, R. M. M., and Miczek, K. A. Therefore, it could buffer the adverse effects concerning social process (i.e., deviant peer affiliation) but could not buffer behavioral outcomes of parental psychological control. 21, 461481. First, excessive psychological intervention by high-controlling parents may lead adolescents to acquire an interpersonal-control model of psychological control, which may force adolescents to affiliate with deviant peers (Cook and Fletcher, 2012; Zhu et al., 2017). To encourage honest reporting, participants were assured that their answers would be kept confidential. doi: 10.1016/j.jsp.2011.04.001, Wang, Z., Yu, C., Zhang, W., Chen, Y., Zhu, J., and Liu, Q. doi: 10.1177/0272431611435117, Loukas, A., Roalson, L. A., and Herrera, D. E. (2010). Moreover, parental psychological control was positively linked to aggressive behavior (b = 0.23, SE = 0.02, t = 12.14, p < 0.01), as was deviant peer affiliation (b = 0.21, SE = 0.02, t = 10.57, p < 0.01). Future studies are needed to further find important moderators between deviant peer affiliation and adolescent development. 74, 462468. Psychol. However, there was no significant interaction between school connectedness and deviant peer affiliation in predicting aggressive behavior (b = -0.03, SE = 0.03, t = -1.15, p > 0.05). 64, 1322. doi: 10.1007/s10802-016-0259-0, Zhu, J., Yu, C., Zhang, W., Bao, Z., Jiang, Y., Chen, Y., et al. For example, Loukas et al. For example, with a longitudinal study of aggression in Chinese students from grades 7 to 9, Zhu et al. 9:1036. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2018.01036, Liu, S., Yu, C., Zhen, S., Zhang, W., Su, P., and Xu, Y. Bandura, A. Parental psychological control positively predicted deviant peer affiliation (b = 0.16, SE = 0.02, t = 9.78, p < 0.01) and positively predicted aggressive behavior (b = 0.25, SE = 0.02, t = 13.21, p < 0.01), while deviant peer affiliation also positively predicted aggressive behavior (b = 0.23, SE = 0.02, t = 12.40, p < 0.01). doi: 10.1177/0272431613511330, Rudolph, K. D., Lansford, J. E., Agoston, A. M., Sugimura, N., Schwartz, D., Dodge, K. A., et al. doi: 10.1016/j.adolescence.2012.02.015. Psychol. However, there are also other factors that have important roles in adolescent aggressive behaviors, such as parental corporal punishment, social status of adolescents, and student-teacher relationships (Zhu et al., 2017; Longobardi et al., 2018). Res. Child Dev. Learn how and when to remove these template messages, personal reflection, personal essay, or argumentative essay, Learn how and when to remove this template message, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), "Changing the world and changing the self: A two-process model of perceived control", "Perceived Control and Mindfulness: Implications for Clinical Practice", "Call for Papers: The Contribution of Learning and Memory Processes to Cognitive Control", "Cognitive Control and Attentional Functions", "Temperament | Temperamental Effortful Control (Self-Regulation)",, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia articles with style issues from October 2015, Articles needing additional references from October 2015, All articles needing additional references, Articles with multiple maintenance issues, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2021, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License 3.0, Desired control (the amount of control one seeks within a relationship or other circumstance), Motivational control (one's ability to act on prescribed behaviors), Social control (selecting one's environment for personal benefit), Ego control (the attempt to regulate impulses or attention processes), This page was last edited on 19 July 2022, at 03:36. The mediation model revealed that the model is identified to the data: 2/df = 2.14, CFI = 0.99, RMSEA = 0.023. We need to be cautious about possible bias, including self-presentation biases (Williams et al., 1989; Longobardi et al., 2018; Settanni et al., 2018). Youth Serv. Developmental origins of early antisocial behavior. We conducted a simple slopes test, and as depicted in Figure 4, the positive association between parental psychological control and deviant peer affiliation was much stronger for adolescents with lower school connectedness (b = 0.17, SE = 0.02, t = 7.82, p < 0.01) than for adolescents with higher school connectedness (b = 0.10, SE = 0.02, t = 4.65, p < 0.01). "[18] Failure of ego control is seen as a central problem in individuals who have substance abuse disorders. The Emotional Engagement Subscale of the School Engagement Scale assessed adolescents school connectedness (Wang et al., 2011). A., and Buckley, M. R. (1989). J. Sch. [17] The definition of social control has changed over time to include the social control groups of people have in addition to individuals.[17]. "Compensatory Control and the Appeal of a Structured World". 98, 310357. High perceived control is often associated with better health, relationships, and adjustment. Table 1. Early adolescent internet game addiction in context: how parents, school, and peers impact youth. We used Mplus 7.1 to perform structural equation modeling in order to examine mediation and moderation effects (Muthn and Muthn, 19982012). The editor and reviewer's affiliations are the latest provided on their Loop research profiles and may not reflect their situation at the time of review. Rev. (1985). Peer victimization and social alienation: predicting deviant peer affiliation in middle school. (2016). Second, all data was reported by adolescents, who may not have been fully informed in assessing information about parental psychological control and peer affiliation. Alcohol and drugs also influence one's inhibitory control. doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2016.02.075, Lin, S., Yu, C., Chen, W., Tian, Y., and Zhang, W. (2018). Perceived control is often associated with the term locus of control. These findings provide some targeted intervention suggestions for reducing the risk of adolescent aggressive behavior. Dev. Oxford: Prentice-Hall. [10] Furthermore, these results were consistent among both male and female subjects. [7] Cognitive control is often developed through reinforcement as well as learning from previous experiences. Moreover, this indirect link was stronger for adolescents with low levels of school connectedness than for those with high levels of school connectedness. Behav. Model of the mediating role of deviant peer affiliation between parental psychological control and aggressive behavior. Rev. Copyright 2019 Tian, Yu, Lin, Lu, Liu and Zhang. YT, CY, and WZ conceived and designed the research. Therefore, understanding the development of aggressive behavior in adolescence is essential for the development of protective intervention programs. The interplay between ADHD symptoms and time perspective in addictive social media use: a study on adolescent Facebook users. Grounded in the social development model and stress-buffering model, this study investigated whether deviant peer affiliation mediates the relation between parental psychological control and adolescent aggressive behavior, and whether this indirect link is moderated by school connectedness. This study thus identifies the potential underlying mechanism by which parental psychological control is associated with adolescent aggressive behaviors, which has important implications for theory and prevention. Comput. Participants reported on their own aggressive behaviors using the Chinese version of the BussWarren aggression questionnaire (BWAQ) (Maxwell, 2008; Lin et al., 2018). Differ. Front. Child Psychol. Parental education and aggressive behavior in children: a moderated-mediation model for inhibitory control and gender. Brain serotonin receptors and transporters: initiation vs. termination of escalated aggression. Deviant peer affiliation as an explanatory mechanism in the association between corporal punishment and physical aggression: a longitudinal study among Chinese adolescents. In social psychology experiments conducted by Daniel M. Wegner, Ralph Erber and R.E. (2013) found that parental psychological control predicts adolescent relational and physical aggression. Individ. Meanwhile, poor social skills and negative relationship with conventional peers could positively predict deviant peer affiliation (Rudolph et al., 2014). Model of the moderating role of school connectedness on the indirect relationship between parental psychological control and aggressive behavior. doi: 10.1016/j.adolescence.2016.07.001, Loke, A. Y., Mak, Y. W., and Wu, C. S. T. (2016). Therefore, further research needs to include these factors as independent variables or control variables to better understand the etiology of adolescent aggressive behavior. Adolescent externalizing behaviour, psychological control, and peer rejection: transactional links and dopaminergic moderation. [10] This highlights the effect of ironic rebound: when the individuals attempted not to be sexist under a significant time constraint, their resulting actions were counter to their attempts at cognitive control. Prediction of preschool aggression from DRD4 risk, parental ADHD symptoms, and home chaos. Permissive parenting, deviant peer affiliations, and delinquent behavior in adolescence: the moderating role of sympathetic nervous system reactivity. Pers. 74, 4854. Ample research evidence has repeatedly shown that psychological control is a widely-used tactic in parenting, and it is an important predictor of adolescent aggressive behavior (Nelson et al., 2013; Cui et al., 2014). The data was collected by trained psychology teachers or graduate students in psychology. J. Res. Promoting or suppressing resilience to mental health outcomes in at risk young people: the role of parental and peer attachment and school connectedness. Hypothesis 1: Deviant peer affiliation will mediate the relationship between parental psychological control and adolescent aggressive behavior. "[11] Social control can be influenced by several factors including the control that society places on individual actions and behaviors[16] as well as the control an individual can exert over their own behaviors in public. Aggressive behavior is a highly prevalent problem behavior that often occurs in adolescence. doi: 10.1037/0021-9010.74.3.462, Zhu, J., Yu, C., Bao, Z., Jiang, Y., Zhang, W., Chen, Y., et al. This could be because such connectedness principally reflects their relationships with others at school (Millings et al., 2012). Psychol. Psychol. Finally, school connectedness may be protective for adolescents under psychological control, by motivating them to conform to social regulations and by decreasing the likelihood of their engaging in deviant activities (Liu et al., 2016). (1977). Future studies should also include data reports from parents, peers, and teachers, in order to elicit more accurate information. activities. Figure 3. 10:358. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2019.00358. The participants in this study were recruited from eleven schools in Guangdong province, southern China, through stratified and random cluster sampling. [22], How a person regulates themselves or wishes to regulate their environment, This article is about the concept in psychology. Rev. 20, 1322. The results showed that school connectedness moderated the association between parental psychological control and deviant peer affiliation (b = -0.05, SE = 0.02, t = -2.02, p < 0.05). doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9507.2011.00642.x, Cui, L., Morris, A. S., Criss, M. M., Houltberg, B. J., and Silk, J. S. (2014). This study examined the mediating and moderating mechanism between parental psychological control and adolescent aggressive behavior in a large sample. 52, 19942009. B., Erath, S. A., Tu, K. M., and El-Sheikh, M. (2015). J. Adolesc. 86, 472485. The average personal monthly household income in China (2018) is 1753, equivalent to about $259. Future studies should use longitudinal designs or other methods to verify the causal relationships. Hot IC involves activities or tasks related to emotional regulation, and cold IC involves abstract activities or tasks. This study was supported by Guangzhou Universitys 2017 training program for young top-notch personnels (BJ201725), National Natural Science Foundation of China (31600901 and 31671154), the 13th Five-Year Plan for the development of philosophy and social sciences of Guangzhou (2016GZGJ93), and the youth project of social sciences for the universities belonged to Guangzhou city (1201630586). For instance, Nelson et al. Violence in school: an investigation of physical, psychological, and sexual victimization reported by Italian adolescents. [2] Perceived control can be affected by two processes: primary and secondary control. One such factor is school connectedness, which includes interactions between the adolescent and peers, between the adolescent and teachers, and between the adolescent and other significant members of the school (Fredricks et al., 2004). These findings show that school connectedness decreases the influence of the parental psychological control on deviant peer affiliation in adolescents (Loukas et al., 2010). J. Abnorm. J. Adolesc. [12] Emotional control manages and balances the physiological as well as psychological response to an emotion. J. doi: 10.1016/j.adolescence.2018.01.002, Oudekerk, B. Cronbachs was 0.88. Parental psychological control is an important negative parenting type that refers to parental control of the adolescents psychological world, and it includes tactics such as love withdrawal, devaluation, and guilt induction. [1] One's perception of perceived control is influenced by the past and future as well as what the desired outcome of an event may be. PPC, Parental psychological control; DPA, Deviant peer affiliation. Further details may exist on the. The results showed a significant, positive relation between parental psychological control and aggressive behavior. First, we provide evidence that parental psychological control might increase the risk of adolescent aggressive behavior. doi: 10.1111/cdev.12112, Settanni, M., Marengo, D., Fabris, M. A., and Longobardi, C. (2018). Personality and aggressive behavior under provoking and neutral conditions: a meta-analytic review. Anderson, C. A., and Bushman, B. J. Front. (2011). Behav. Psychol. 67, 32963319. YT, CY, and SL contributed to the writing of the manuscript. doi: 10.1037/dev0000241, Maxwell, J. P. (2008). In the current study, 19 items were used indicating levels of physical, relationship, and verbal aggression behaviors during the past 6 months, such as Once in a while, I cant control the urge to strike another person. Responses are rated on a 5-point scale (from 1 = Not at all to 5 = Absolutely like me). The cascading development of autonomy and relatedness from adolescence to adulthood. Fiedler, F.E. 50, 159168. However, the mediating and moderating mechanisms underlying this relation are still under-investigated. p < 0.01. Temporal ordering effects of adolescent depression, relational aggression, and victimization over six waves: fully latent reciprocal effects models. A total of 4265 adolescents (Meanage = 13.66 years, SD = 2.74, 48.63% male) from southern China completed questionnaires regarding parental psychological control, deviant peer affiliation, school connectedness, and aggressive behavior. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2007.10.037, Millings, A., Buck, R., Montgomery, A., Spears, M., and Stallard, P. (2012). Adolescents with lower school connectedness were more likely to associate with deviant peers, which in turn contributed to higher levels of aggressive behavior. (2015). Perceived parental monitoring and adolescent internet addiction: a moderated mediation model. 74, 59109. Behav. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. [19], Effortful control is a type of self-regulation. Abundant evidence has demonstrated an association between parental psychological control and adolescent aggressive behavior. [8] Cognitive control is commonly tested using the Stroop color-word task as well as the Eriksen flanker task. Soc. In this scale, adolescents report their perceptions of the extent to which parents have engaged in psychologically controlling behaviors (i.e., love withdrawal, devaluation, and guilt induction) in the past half year. Psychol. (2017). doi: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.05.033, Farbiash, T., Berger, A., Atzaba-Poria, N., and Auerbach, J. G. (2014). doi: 10.1016/j.appdev.2012.07.003, Oldfield, J., Stevenson, A., Ortiz, E., and Haley, B. Los Angeles, CA: Muthn and Muthn. abuse domestic cycle violence verbal silent killer medium abuser [12] Emotional control contains several emotional regulation strategies including distraction, cognitive reappraisal, and emotional action control. Annu. This subscale consists of eight items, scored on a 5-point Likert scale (that is, from 1 = Strongly disagree to 5 = Strongly agree), and asks participants to report the extent of their connectedness with their school, with items such as In general, I feel like a real part of this school. The mean of the eight items was calculated, with higher scores reflecting higher school connectedness. "Intervention Effects on College Performance and Retention as Mediated by Motivational, Emotional, and Social Control Factors: Integrated Meta-Analytic Path Analysis.". Applicability of the social development model to urban ethnic minority youth: examining the relationship between external constraints, family socialization, and problem behaviors. 'Ego control' describes the efforts of an individual to control "thoughts, emotions, impulses or appetites task performances [and] attentional processes. This finding indicates that school connectedness interacts with a parenting factor (parental psychological control) to amplify the mediating processes. stupendous 35, 420438. A., Allen, J. P., Hessel, E. T., and Molloy, L. E. (2015). "Relations Between inhibitory Control and the Development of Academic Skills in Preschool and Kindergarten: A Meta-Analysis". Front. (2006). [10], Emotional control is a term from literature on self-regulatory psychology and refers to "the ability to self-manage or regulate attitudes and feelings that directly affect participant receptiveness to, and implementation of, training activities. In psychology, control is a person's ability or perception of their ability to affect themselves, others, their conditions, their environment or some other circumstance. Adolesc. Child Abuse Negl. There are several types of control, including: Perceived control in psychology is a "person's belief that [they are] capable of obtaining desired outcomes, avoiding undesired outcomes, and achieving goals." Br. J. Adolesc. Violence 18, 4961. Descriptive statistics and the Pearson product-moment correlations for all variables. A lack of inhibitory control can lead to difficulties in motor, attentional, and behavioral control. The eight-item Psychological Control Scale-Youth Self-report was used to measure the psychological control of participants parents (Barber, 1996). "Event Structure and Cognitive Control". doi: 10.1007/s00213-010-2000-y, Tian, Y., Yu, C., Lin, S., Lu, J., Liu, Y., and Zhang, W. (2019). J. Res. Moreover, 55.79% come from families with an average monthly income between 1000 to 5000, equivalent to about $148 to $738. The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. Figure 2. Primary control consists of attempting to change the environment to align with one's own wishes, whereas secondary perceived refers to the act of attempting to gain control by changing one's wishes to reflect what exists or is achievable within the environment. 49, 465480. In line with the social development model (Hawkins and Weis, 1985), there is ample research evidence demonstrating the mediating role of deviant peer affiliation in the relation between negative parenting and adolescent problem behaviors including aggressive behavior (Hinnant et al., 2015; Zhu et al., 2017). Peer victimization, deviant peer affiliation and impulsivity: predicting adolescent problem behaviors. The results are displayed in Figure 2. 45, 15371551. According to DSM-V, aggressive behavior is a widely prevalent symptom in psychiatric diseases, such as anxiety disorder, autism, and adjustment disorder (Takahashi et al., 2011). Based on these theoretical suggestions and indirect experimental evidence, we expect that school connectedness would weaken the mediating effect of deviant peer affiliation toward the influence of psychological control on adolescent aggression. Parental psychological control and adolescent adjustment: the role of adolescent emotion regulation. Psychol. [5] This can apply to romantic, non-romantic, professional, and sales contexts. Second, adolescents learn behavior patterns from their delinquent peers via observation and imitation, which in turn increase the risk of aggressive behavior (Bandura, 1977; Wang et al., 2017). [5], Cognitive control is "the ability to control one's thoughts and actions. It is a broader construct than inhibitory control, and encompasses working memory and attention-shifting. Public Health. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.98.2.310, Cook, E. C., and Fletcher, A. C. (2012). doi: 10.1111/cdev.12313, Rudasill, K. M., Niehaus, K., Crockett, L. J., and Rakes, C. R. (2014). 6, 7397. Controlled behaviors - behaviors over which one has cognitive control - are guided by maintenance, updating, and representing task goals, and inhibiting information irrelevant to the task goal. (2014). Stress, social support, and the buffering hypothesis. Bull. [21] Effortful control is theorized to be involved in the process of problem solving as well as behavior regulation due to the top-down processing involved. This result is consistent with Hypothesis 1 and the social development model (Hawkins and Weis, 1985; Choi et al., 2005), indicating that experiencing psychological control from parents affects adolescents tendencies for aggressive behavior. doi: 10.1007/s10802-015-0114-8, Janssens, A., Van den Noortgate, W., Goossens, L., Verschueren, K., Colpin, H., Claes, S., et al. Autism Spectr. Table 1 displays the means and standard deviations of the variables and the Pearson product-moment correlations for all variables in the current study. Psychometric properties of a Chinese version of the BussWarren aggression questionnaire. Cronbachs was 0.79. Nonsignificant paths, and paths between gender, age, SES (socioeconomic status was measured as the average of participants standardized scores reporting parental education level, parental occupation status, and family per capita monthly income; higher scores represent higher SES), and each of the variables in the model are not displayed. Twelve items that index deviant peer affiliation assessed how many of students peers had displayed deviant behaviors in the past half year. 21, 10951109. Muthn, L. K., and Muthn, B. O. 15, 505534. Does school connectedness buffer the impact of peer victimization on early adolescents subsequent adjustment problems? 58, 3950. Early Adolesc. These findings suggest that school educators can effectively help adolescents (especially those with high parental psychological control) avoid developing aggressive behavior by increasing their connectedness with the school. Dev. These results suggest that parents should avoid controlling their adolescents psychological world in family life, as it might cause them to develop aggressive behavior. (2008). The mean of the eight items was calculated, with higher scores reflecting higher parental psychological control. Child Dev. Allan, Hume, Allan, Farrington and Lonigan. Second, consistent with the social development model (Hawkins and Weis, 1985; Choi et al., 2005), this study demonstrated the important mediating role of deviant peer affiliation. Externalizing and internalizing behaviours in adolescence, and the importance of parental behavioural and psychological control practices. J. Appl. In other words, school connectedness acts as a buffer for the negative effects of negative family relations on delinquent behaviors (Loukas et al., 2010). However, the moderating effects of school connectedness on relations between parental psychological control, deviant peer affiliation, and adolescent aggressive behavior are not significant. Res. Several limitations should be considered in the interpretation and generalizability of the present findings. Peer victimization and aggressive behavior among Chinese adolescents: delinquent peer affiliation as a mediator and parental knowledge as a moderator. 34, 896922. (2017). Social Learning Theory. According to the stress-buffering model (Cohen and Wills, 1985), adolescents with strong school connectedness are more likely to accept the schools norms, values, and expectations, and to refrain from aggressive behavior, given that problematic behaviors are inconsistent with the regulations of the school (Loukas and Pasch, 2013; Liu et al., 2016). Psychol. Parent Sci. [3][4], Desired control is the degree of influence that an individual desires over any subject, circumstance, or relationship. School climate and adolescent aggression: a moderated mediation model involving deviant peer affiliation and sensation seeking. Pers. Of those paths, the following were significant: gender, age and SES on delinquent peer affiliation (b1 = 0.10, b2 = 0.01, b3 = -0.02, b4 = 0.05), gender, age and SES on aggressive behavior (b1 = 0.08, b2 = 0.01, b3 = 0.15). doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2017.08.004, Williams, L. J., Cote, J. "[11] Emotional control is often referred to as emotional regulation and is the process the brain undergoes to regulate and control emotional responses throughout the day. During adolescence, time spent with family steadily decreases and an increasing amount of time is spent in the company of peers (Zhu et al., 2016; Lin et al., 2018; Tian et al., 2019). 35, 10611067. Reflecting the demographics of the sample, 54.35% of participants fathers and 62.49% of their mothers have less than a high school education; 39.22% come from rural areas, 43.20% from small-medium cities, and 17.58% from metropolitan areas. Pract. Bowman, male and female subjects were instructed to complete some sentences related to sexism.