after making weight), as high glycemic carbohydrates have demonstrated superior glycogen resynthesis rates . No, don't bark like a dog. Although it is well understood that physique athletes utilize supplements such as protein powder, processed carbohydrates, pre-workout stimulants and ergogenic aids, creatine, vitamins/minerals, omega-3s, thermogenics, diuretics and much more [2, 7], there is a paucity of data on how these supplements affect the athletes peaking process to enhance their physique. Muscle glycogen synthesis before and after exercise. Starling RD, Trappe TA, Parcell AC, Kerr CG, Fink WJ, Costill DL. If you over-pump you'll have a lack of separation. Fasting for 72h increases intramyocellular lipid content in nondiabetic, physically fit men. Despite the lack of data within this demographic, dietary fiber is likely a variable that can impact a bodybuilders peaking process and should be considered on an individual basis in context with the other aspects of the peak week approach. Chappell et al. 2018;11:26371. Int J Sports Med. Pp. Eur J Appl Physiol. doi:https://doi.org/10.1152/jappl.19184.108.40.2068. 2010;56:299304.
So, simply cutting out water and sodium will mean you retain less water and have onion thin skin and defined muscles, right? Get the simple recipe here. Sports Med. That would be a disaster. Roberts BM, Helms ER, Trexler ET, Fitschen PJ. J Clin Hypertens. Note that this recommendation is based on what has been studied and reported; however, the authors recognize that higher water intakes may be preferential such as 3040 ml/kg but have not been investigated and thus require further research. Am J Clin Nutr. J Appl Physiol. Carbohydrate ingestion augments skeletal muscle creatine accumulation during creatine supplementation in humans. Article Effect of creatine supplementation on body composition and performance: a meta-analysis. High-fat diet elevates resting intramuscular triglyceride concentration and whole body lipolysis during exercise. Avoiding excessive muscle damage may thus be important when considering a resistance training strategy during peak week not only to maximize glycogen and IMT stores, but also to prevent unwanted delayed onset muscle soreness that may impede the ability to activate muscles  during posing. GE serves as a scientific consultant for VPX Sports Nutrition, a manufacturer of sports supplements. Freitas EDS, Miller RM, Heishman AD, Ferreira-Jnior JB, Arajo JP, Bemben MG. Although research is limited on the topic, Chappell et al. If you have a choice, keep the temperature in the room high. Vitamin C. https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/VitaminC-HealthProfessional/. On the other hand, fiber sources such as guar gum  and psyllium , which have been shown to reduce symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome dominated by both constipation and diarrhea, might be employed on an individual basis to offset gastrointestinal distress, as noted above in the study by de Moraes et al. However, some fine tuning is often necessary to optimize the physiques appearance when being judged. 1995;486(Pt 2):52331. Note that the participants unanimous decision to abandon these water and sodium manipulation strategies suggests they had likely neither performed nor refined them previously (e.g., as a trial run or during peak week for another competition). doi:https://doi.org/10.1139/H07-072. Alternatively, sodium can be kept as a constant to minimize the variables being manipulated; indeed, this might be the best approach if no practice runs are performed prior to competing. Groups can determine their own course content .. We are classified as a Close Proximity Business under the Covid-19 Protection Framework (Traffic Lights). It sounds simple enough: Sodium makes you hold subcutaneous water, and potassium favors retaining water in the muscles, right? doi:https://doi.org/10.1210/jcem-44-4-639.
American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology Metabolism. Time course of leukocyte accumulation in human muscle after eccentric exercise. With the right plan and the right discipline, you can get seriously shredded in just 28 days. CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform; 2018. https://play.google.com/store/books/details?id=k9S5uwEACAAJ. Saturday (contest, photo, or beach day): Breakfast depends on how you look: Looking flat? Caffeines diuretic, mood-improving  and performance enhancing effects  should also be considered in the context of potential sleep disturbances if taken acutely to promote diuresis to make weight and/or the night before competition, as well as withdrawal effect if use is abruptly discontinued . doi:https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-017-0690-6. Additionally, competitors manipulated water and/or sodium intake in an effort to induce a diuretic/polyuria effect to flush out superfluous water . Scale weight can be used during peak week to evaluate and confirm hydration levels (see Practical Considerations section below). Med Sci Sports Exerc. Accessed 6 Aug 2020. PubMed Central Please note that caution is warranted as excessive vitamin C consumption may cause osmotic diarrhea . While these findings seem to suggest that the carbohydrate loading protocol was effective in acutely enhancing muscle size, it should be noted that the long gap between testing sessions makes it impossible to draw inferences as to causality in this regard. In another study, investigators reduced sodium intake to extremely low levels (10 meq/day) for ~6 days in 16 healthy men and measured the RAAS, plasma aldosterone, urine sodium, and serum sodium levels at 24h, 48h, and ~6 days after the intervention . J Appl Physiol. Intern Med J. So, that dry, vascular, and full physique that bodybuilding judges are looking for will be nowhere to be seen. CAS https://muscleinsider.com/features/fat-loading. Knepper MA, Kwon T-H, Nielsen S. Molecular physiology of water balance.
Thus, employing peak week strategies is merely a means to achieve superior on-stage competition day appearance by fine tuning the body compared to simply maintaining the pre-contest diet and training strategies (i.e., those focused primarily on reducing body fat and maintaining or gaining muscle mass) . And finally, if you're below 6% they'll leave you floored by the dramatic visual difference! 1999;27:167218. , a back-loading method was used, but more evidence is required before more concrete recommendations are made. Patrick J.  reported that the bodybuilders they observed severely reduced their fiber intake primarily by reducing/omitting fibrous vegetables during peak week.
While IMT had returned to 33% below baseline 2h after exercise despite no intake of food, muscle glycogen stores diminished by only 25% over the course of the bout but failed to significantly recover in the absence of food consumption . By gradually reducing water intake you lose the benefit of the flushing mode. Kidney international. doi:https://doi.org/10.1152/jappl.19220.127.116.112. Thus, there is support for the common empirical observation that psychological stress may counteract the competitive bodybuilders attempts to reduce body water, especially in extreme cases of pre-competition anxiety. Physiol Rev. Food Sci Technol Res. Basically, you have a 50/50 chance of getting this right. Intracranial and Intraocular Pressure During Various Degrees of Head-Down Tilt. 2018;6. doi:https://doi.org/10.3390/sports6040126. https://www.nrcresearchpress.com/doi/abs/https://doi.org/10.1139/h99-017.  that reported an increase in muscle volume and enhanced physical appearance as a result of a carbohydrate-loading protocol provides some evidence that bodybuilders alter their protein intake during peak week. Although controlled research on the topic is limited for what is optimal for bodybuilders, current evidence does appear to indicate a potential benefit of carbohydrate manipulation as a peaking strategy. When RAAS is activated, the process of maintaining fluid, electrolyte, and blood pressure homeostasis is initiated  and eventually releases the hormone aldosterone from the adrenal glands to further fine tune homeostasis [52, 53]. Gardner LI, Talbot NB, Cook CD, Berman H, Uribe RC. Protein only (shake with very little water). Sawka MN, Coyle EF. It's designed to help already lean people get super lean. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31827362. Harber MP, Crane JD, Douglass MD, Weindel KD, Trappe TA, Trappe SW, et al. 1992;12:50526. doi:https://doi.org/10.3390/nu2030355. Use of intramuscular triacylglycerol as a substrate source during exercise in humans. , researchers reported that 100% of participants (n=7) utilized the practice of water loading and water cutting during peak week. and its practical appliction to resistance training - - . The reverse wouldn't happen either: you can't go to bed chubby and wake up lean. doi:https://doi.org/10.1123/ijsnem.2017-0183. Arch Gen Psychiatry. Variability in the extent of post-exercise inflammation [180, 181] may also explain the above-noted variability in the extent of hydration that accompanies glycogen loading. Sports Med. Exercises that overload the muscle in their lengthened range/are eccentric dominant (e.g. 2016;41:56572. 2016;121:20511. Bodybuilders typically employ periods of 822+weeks of preparation where diet and exercise programs are modified from the off-season in an effort to lose body fat and gain or maintain skeletal muscle mass [1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10]. Med Sci Sports Exerc. It is this water which increases cell volume, improves cell function, and makes your muscles look big and full. International Olympic Committee sport psychology handbook. The correct interpretation of the size principle.
This will lead to more glycogen surcompensation in that muscle group so the next day it will look more full. Hocking S, Samocha-Bonet D, Milner K-L, Greenfield JR, Chisholm DJ. Reducing fat coingestion with large amounts of carbohydrate may also avoid negative effects of free-fatty acids on glycogen formation , reduce gastric distension by speeding gastric emptying, as well as improve glycogen loading by further elevating blood glucose and insulin levels [191,192,193]. Add more hot water as it cools. Time course of enhanced adrenal responsiveness to angiotensin on a low salt diet. It is commonly believed that glycogen depletion is best achieved when utilising higher rep ranges in the 12-20 rep range, essentially pumping the muscle full of blood, but not training at a point close to failure or overreaching with negatives. Emotionally stressful situations can evoke polydipsia and alter fluid homeostasis in as little as 48h [78, 79]. Dietary fiber is indigestible plant matter of carbohydrate sources that can be categorized as water-soluble or insoluble (i.e.
So, we now know that restricting water and sodium intakes will do you no favours come show day, so what can you do instead? Just be very careful, because you could easily spill over and ruin your whole prep in a short time. Success in bodybuilding requires that competitors achieve their peak physique during the day of competition. This strategy involved drinking>10L of water per day early in the week and then reducing the intake each subsequent day leading up to the competition. doi:https://doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00112.2003. In: StatPearls. [119,120,121]. The competitors self-reported being steroid-free for a minimum of two years prior to the study. J Appl Physiol. If youre happy, have a small serving of protein and low GI or starchy carbs. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. The goal of this peaking procedure is to minimize subcutaneous water (just beneath the skin) while keeping the muscle as full as possible. Carbohydrate Loading Practice in Bodybuilders: Effects on Muscle Thickness, Photo Silhouette Scores, Mood States and Gastrointestinal Symptoms. 2010;42:7585. Kraemer WJ, Noble BJ, Clark MJ, Culver BW. The Effect of Water Loading on Acute Weight Loss Following Fluid Restriction in Combat Sports Athletes. However, post-exercise restoration of both fuel sources correlates with insulin sensitivity and proceeds similarly relative to resting stores regardless of training status . Layman DK. Chappell et al. Nutritional strategies of high level natural bodybuilders during competition preparation. Short periods of more severe HDT up to -30% evoke graded increases in central venous pressure beyond those of -6% HDT , although the diuretic responses to HDT angle less than 6% have not been studied to our knowledge. The use of multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (MBIA) caused some to initially interpret the data with some skepticism. The role of urea in the urine concentrating mechanism. By adopting a trick or two from competitive natural bodybuilders, you can learn to control this phenomenon and use it tactically when you want to look your leanest. Your muscles are made from water and amino acids, so they need water to remain full enough to plastic wrap your skin around them. These data suggest that reaching diuresis-promoting vitamin C blood concentrations varies as a function of rates of absorption and uptake/deposition into tissues  (3). We start the carb load with fast acting simple carb sources like dextrose and maltodextrin, or something with a very high glycemic index rating, like white bread, baked potatoes etc as this will rapidly be absorbed and replenish glycogen in muscle cells. https://www.cabdirect.org/cabdirect/abstract/19411401274. Mauran et al., for instance, demonstrated that these hormonal responses and the associated diuresis and natriuresis return to baseline within 24h , evoking a body weight loss of approximately 1.0-1.3kg without changes in resting heart rate or blood pressure [58, 60, 61]. This points to the possibility that keeping protein intake high during the loading day would have further worsened gastrointestinal symptoms, potentially due to excessive food intake. Escalante, G., Stevenson, S.W., Barakat, C. et al. All rights reserved. Thursday: Today you'll bump up water intake to 4 gallons and do the Mag-10 Pulse Fast. Effects of Fat on Gastric Emptying of and the Glycemic, Insulin, and Incretin Responses to a Carbohydrate Meal in Type 2 Diabetes. At age 62, "Big Bill" shares his wisdom to dominate one of the ultimate strength marks. As previously mentioned in the carbohydrate and water/sodium sections, bodybuilders seek to maximize muscle glycogen and its associated osmotic effect as a means to increase total muscle volume. The Top 10 Bodybuilding Nutrition Questions, Answe 7 Ways to Crush Your Bodybuilding Competition, When It Comes To Carbohydrates, Consider Glycemic Index. Metabolic profiles, diet, and health practices of championship male and female bodybuilders. Take a good 3 seconds to lower the weight (eccentric portion of lift) and about 2 seconds to lift it. 2007;10:27290. Ziegenfuss et al. 2019;597:460113. Vandenberghe K, Van Hecke P, Van Leemputte M, Vanstapel F, Hespel P. INHIBITION OF MUSCLE. J Physiol. Although participants acknowledged the risks of these strategies, they downplayed them as temporary but necessary practices . Persistence of supercompensated muscle glycogen in trained subjects after carbohydrate loading. If youve been around as long as I have, youd wish you had a dollar each time you heard that. 1990;90:9627. Do not eat until you have a "food baby" bulge in your belly. Furthermore, the glycemic index of different carbohydrate sources have been shown to impact glycogen synthesis rates [122, 123]. Indeed, nearly as much energy is stored in muscle cells as IMT as is stored as glycogen . 2018;52:37684. Furthermore, it took 48h to observe a sharp increase in plasma aldosterone levels to further decrease urine sodium output to 59 meq/24 hr and another~4 days for urine sodium output to stabilize at 9.9 meq/24 hr . 1998;275:E3327. Article The more water you drink, the more water your body will shell out, and the drier you will look. The potential for glycogen loading to impair IMT storage suggests that separating periods of glycogen and fat loading may be prudent, with a high CHO diet preceding efforts to fat load . Friday: If you choose to take an herbal diuretic, start it this afternoon and begin your carb-up. Phillips SM, Chevalier S, Leidy HJ. Leg Extension 12-15 reps (30-60 seconds rest), Hamstring Curl 12-15 reps (30-60 seconds rest), Seated Row 12-15 reps (30-60 seconds rest), Chest Press- 12-15 reps (30-60 seconds rest), Preacher Curl 12-15 reps (30-60 seconds rest), Tricep Extension 12-15 reps (30-60 seconds rest), Glycogen Depletion Training Programme Essentials, Control the eccentrics and focus on contraction through concentrics, Wide Grip Lat Pulldown 2 sets 12 reps, Day 4 Even more water Say 8 10 litres. Google Scholar. The effect of potassium ions on glycogen synthesis. Dcombaz J. Note: These techniques will not make you look shredded if you're fat. Spendlove J, Mitchell L, Gifford J, Hackett D, Slater G, Cobley S, et al. Vila-Ch C, Hassanlouei H, Farina D, Falla D. Eccentric exercise and delayed onset muscle soreness of the quadriceps induce adjustments in agonistantagonist activity, which are dependent on the motor task. The literature on disuse atrophy and cardiovascular adaptations to weightlessness during space flight  reveals a previously described strategy  that physique competitors may employ to promote diuresis during the ~24h before competition. 1991;11:21031. Toward the more athletic end of the spectrum, in the most comprehensive meta-analysis of its kind, Morton et al. doi:https://doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00368.2004. 2018;10. doi:https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10030350. Burke LM, Collier GR, Hargreaves M. Muscle glycogen storage after prolonged exercise: effect of the glycemic index of carbohydrate feedings. Other research supports the findings of the aforementioned studies. Kidney Int. doi:https://doi.org/10.1345/aph.1g685. Caldwell JE. Physiology, Water Balance. 1991;11:619. Decombaz J, Fleith M, Hoppeler H, Kreis R, Boesch C. Effect of diet on the replenishment of intramyocellular lipids after exercise. Severely restricting sodium intakes results in aldosterone levels virtually doubling, or even tripling if you go with an extreme restriction. Maughan RJ, Griffin J. Caffeine ingestion and fluid balance: a review. Carbohydrate-protein complex increases the rate of muscle glycogen storage after exercise. However, the following are commonly accepted and previously suggested  ways of evaluating contest day readiness: Are the muscle glycogen stores full, and can the athlete get a pump? Looking good? Ziegenfuss TN, Rogers M, Lowery L, Mullins N, Mendel R, Antonio J, et al. doi:https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-016-3411-1. McBride JJ, Guest MM, Scott EL, Others. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. J Appl Physiol. Water retention during experimental stressful conditions requiring competition is subject to inter-individual variability, perhaps due in part genetic differences . Cell. 1976;40:611. The vast majority of the participants (93.8%) reported employing a peaking strategy the week prior to the competition (referred to as peak week), with the manipulation of carbohydrate (CHO), water, and/or sodium most commonly reported . Tobias A, Mohiuddin SS. Heres an example of a glycogen depletion workout: In terms of how a week would be structured, maybe something like: Tuesday Full body change exercises from above i.e. Hence, ensuring adequate potassium intake during both carbohydrate loading and water cutting procedures (if implemented) is likely paramount to optimizing stage appearance via storage and retention of muscle glycogen and thus encouraging a more favorable loss of ECW relative to ICW when employing dehydration strategies. Yams and potatoes are best. By reducing the volume of excess water stored in the dermis, youre effectively reducing the distance between the skin and muscle. The amount of water consumed during the loading phase ranged from 4 to 12L per day and was typically followed by water restriction 1024h prior to the competition. Starting the carb-up with fruit replenishes liver glycogen very fast. Article Creatine supplementation has also been shown to aid in glycogen synthesis and supercompensation . 1996;49:17327. Avoid grains such as wheat as these might bloat you up. Acute effects of salt on blood pressure are mediated by serum osmolality. Sports (Basel). Thus, the rationale to reduce fiber intake before the competition is typically to minimize the risk of bloating/water retention , and for some, may be an effective strategy for making a weight class.