Context is often used metaphorically in the sense of situation (and sometimes even in the sense of meaning). Se unta muy bien con mantequilla una chapa de horno bastante grande (37 26 cm. Prez Galds, B. Cuando se oy la detonacin, unos cinco minutos despus de que la nia hubiera abandonado la mesa, el padre no se levant enseguida, sino que se qued durante algunos segundos paralizado con la boca llena, sin atreverse a masticar ni a tragar ni menos an a devolver el bocado al plato; y cuando por fin se alz y corri hacia el cuarto de bao, los que lo siguieron vieron cmo mientras descubra el cuerpo ensangrentado de su hija y se echaba las manos a la cabeza iba pasando el bocado de carne de un lado a otro de la boca, sin saber todava qu hacer con l. Text BRAZO DE GITANO (8 personas) 2 cucharadas soperas de fcula de patata, 4 cucharadas soperas de harina, 5 cucharadas soperas de azcar, 3 huevos, 1 clara, un pellizco de vainilla en polvo, 1 cucharada (de las de caf) de levadura Royal, un pellizco de sal, 1 pao limpio, mantequilla para untar la chapa, azcar glass. No obstante, sern de cuenta de la parte compradora los intereses devengados desde la puesta a disposicin de la vivienda si el otorgamiento de la escritura y 25 subrogacin se demoran por causa que le sea imputable. Los masones queran que hubiera revolucin (Serrano de Haro, Yo soy espaol, p. 83). It is sometimes necessary to distinguish between possible third-person subjects (l/ella/usted tiene) and between the first and third persons of the imperfect tense (yo/l/ella/usted tena). Luego de finalizar el recorrido por la Zona Colonial, usted ser llevado a la ciudad moderna, pasando por el Palacio Nacional y la Plaza de la Cultura, donde podr ver el Museo del Hombre Dominicano, el Teatro Nacional, el Museo de Arte Moderno, y la Biblioteca Nacional, toda esta 5 10 15 20 Translation of consumer-oriented texts 255 rea rodeada por hermosos jardines, en el centro de los cuales est la fuente Rosa de los Vientos, un trabajo de arte hecho por Crismar. Please read these operating instructions carefully and observe the notes given. Balompi was coined in Spain in an unsuccessful nationalistic attempt to displace the direct borrowing ftbol (baloncesto has proved more durable as an alternative to bsquet/bsquetbol). With a sharper focus, clearer definitions and an increased emphasis on up-todate real world translation tasks, this second edition features a wealth of relevant illustrative material taken from a wide range of sources, both Latin American and Spanish, including: technical, scientific and legal texts journalistic and informative texts literary and dramatic texts. (iv) He gave me a book; it was blue. The most common type of ethic dative indicates the person for whom something is done, and in some cases this can be expressed in the same way in English: Hazme un bocadillo y chame un poco de vino Make me a sandwich and pour me some wine. (ii) Each group should produce two translations of one of the STs, one aiming to reproduce register accurately and the other deliberately misjudging it. In a similar vein, it is clear that Spanish has in general a lower tolerance than English for the repetition of adverbial suffixes when they are joined by a conjunction, as exemplified by the clear preference for ni rpida ni eficazmente (as opposed to ni rpidamente ni eficazmente), lenta y decididamente (as opposed to lentamente y decididamente), poltica y econmicamente (as opposed to polticamente y econmicamente), and so on. l, oscuro. Material y Mtodos: los alumnos del nivel quinto de la Asignatura de 10 Patologa y Clnica Estomatolgica de la Facultad de Odontologa de la 224 Scientific and technical translation Plata, ao tras ao han sido citados, por comisiones pequeas (no ms de 7 alumnos por cada una) con el fin de observar y participar de la tarea hospitalaria que realiza un equipo docente de Estomatologa dentro del funcionamiento del Servicio de Odontologa de un Hospital de Agudos. Ella, que es tuyo, que es tuyo. First, the translator must be just as familiar with technical terms and genre features in the TL as in the SL. Available: www.publishers.org.uk/en/home/market_reports_and_statistics (accessed 4 December 2007). The semicolon suggests more of a logical connection between the two statements than there is in (iii), a distinction that would be marked in speech by a difference of intonation and pause length.) Se pican los huevos duros y se espolvorean por encima del pescado (esto es facultativo). [.
This decision will depend ultimately on the textual function of metre in the ST, on whether creating metric recurrences in the TT would lead to unacceptable translation losses on other levels, and on the purpose of the translation. Much more dangerous (and more likely, if the translator is not a specialist) is confusion between closely similar technical names. (Two simple sentences linked only by the anaphoric function of the pronoun it.) (1983) Te tratar como a una reina, Barcelona: Seix Barral. Durante el recorrido por la zona colonial, usted podr admirar impresionantes edificaciones, como son: la Torre del Homenaje, Casa de Tostado, Museo de las Casas Reales, Casa del Cordn y la primera calle del Nuevo Mundo, Calle las Damas. Successful examples of this sort of compensation in kind abound in the Astrix books; compare, for instance, Astrix chez les Bretons with Asterix en Bretaa: Obelix: Jolitorax: Pourquoi parlez-vous lenvers? Any of the following levels of contrast within the Spanish-speaking world can be regarded as dialectal: Peninsular/Latin American, Mexican/Colombian, andaluz/manchego, rioplatense/andino, chiapaneco/veracruzano, gaditano/ cordobs. This is my true garb. What may become interesting from the point of view of translation into English is the way in which this kind of structure with an ethic dative, especially in colloquial language, can be used in more surprising ways, some of which can be translated with a possessive: El nio no me come. The order of elements in a sentence in Spanish is not a crucial factor in determining meaning. 5 EXPOSICIN DE MOTIVOS El espritu de reconciliacin y concordia, y de respeto al pluralismo y a la defensa pacfica de todas las ideas, que gui la Transicin, nos permiti dotarnos de una Constitucin, la de 1978, que tradujo jurdicamente esa voluntad de reencuentro de los espaoles, articulando un Estado social y 10 democrtico de derecho con clara vocacin integradora. . Venuti, L. (1992) Introduction in L. Venuti (ed.
. I already knew that she had been with others. For example, if in a particular context Spanish profesora were to be rendered as professor, this would constitute a case of overlapping translation: the common element between ST and TT is the reference to a member of the teaching profession, but the TT loses the detail of female gender reference, while it adds explicit reference to the teachers level of employment, British and American uses of professor being limited to tertiary (in particular, university) education. Online. The published translation would repay discussion in class: And galloping with them as they mount their furious attack, you will lay waste to their fields of cotton and alfalfa and carob beans you will demolish arsenals and magazines, sink feluccas, pillage alcoves you will carry off sofas and divans, mattresses, muslins, and jars you will kill albatrosses you will deprive the astrologer of his azimuth, the alchemist of his elixirs, the assassin of his scimitar you will remove chess from the casinos, and the asphalt from highways (Goytisolo 1989: 166) This example and that drawn from Valenzuelas Cola de lagartija show that it is worth scanning certain types of text for theme-reinforcing word systems (such as a series of thematic key-words, or phonetic patterns, or an extended metaphor), because such things may be important textual devices. Noahs sons repopulate the earth. When there is a need to distinguish repeatedly between two different subjects, texts in Spanish may avoid overusing l/ella, introducing instead a demonstrative pronoun (ste/sta) or a noun phrase specifying more fully who is referred to, such as el hombre, el otro, el marido. Anyone familiar with medical terminology will instantly gloss soplo cardaco as heart murmur, but the translator not used to medical texts may find the phrase puzzling at first sight. Where a ST uses a clich, idiom or proverb, or a standard expression for a familiar situation, sentiment or object, particular reasons would be needed to go against the grain by not choosing communicatively equivalent formulas. In the area of audiovisual translation (dubbing and subtitling of films and television programmes), the amount of translation being carried out into English is tiny compared with the huge global demand for the dubbing and subtitling of US (and some British) media products. All engineering is based on the premise that the transfer of energy in any mechanical device is necessarily subject to a certain degree of energy loss. For instance, a recited poem is quite distinct from its printed counterpart, and so is a performed song from the bare text set down on paper. They set up a dance floor in the plaza and everybody dances the chotis. quiet . Some of the ST features that fall prey to translation loss may not be significant enough as ST variables to be worth the effort of compensation. (Gallardo 2007: 48) 35 40 45 50 55 Literal meaning and translation issues 167 8.4 Literal meaning: particularizing, generalizing and partially overlapping translation Assignment (i) Compare the Spanish and English texts given below.
An accurate literal translation of this phrase might be produced by translating word for word; but the resulting TT phrase would be far too long-winded and ponderous to be suitable in most contexts, and certainly out of place in a colloquial one. Otro mirador de la ciudad es la cumbre y ladera de Montjuich, el monte en que se inici su historia, coronado por la fortaleza que, perdido hoy su carcter militar, vuelve a la ciudad como museo. Daz, L. (1993) La radio en Espaa (19231993), Madrid: Alianza. So capitalism is based on the exploitation of the workers, which means they exploit the workers and take out all the profits they can. website design, stability problems, mouse port) and indeed of nominalization in general. The exercises in Practical 12 will show that, apart from the lexical and conceptual problems outlined above, technical translation is not essentially different from most other sorts of prose translation: as long as specialist help can be called on (and students should be strongly encouraged to enlist the aid of their own technical advisers), there is no reason why technical translation in most fields should be more daunting than translation in any other genre. (ii) The Offices for the Transfer of Research Results (OTRIs) came into being in 1988 for promoting the transfer of scientific and technical offerings to productive sectors, thereby enabling universities and public research centres (CPI) to interrelate with companies in a coherent, planned and activated way. 100 Phonic, graphic and prosodic issues The explanations offered later by Humpty Dumpty offer her some rational clues (slithy being a combination of lithe and slimy) but essentially emphasize subjective interpretation and semantic arbitrariness, encouraging her to make up her own meanings for the words according to how they sound and what lexical associations they suggest to her. English tends to express such emphasis by means of intonation, which can be represented in print with italics, or by some kind of expansion: Yo no he hecho nada. ms o menos) y poco alta; en el fondo se coloca un papel blanco tambin untado con mantequilla. Syntactical, morphological and discourse issues (ii) 139 Suggest alternative translations of phrases or sentences where appropriate. For the moment, we simply suggest that translations can be usefully judged on a scale between the two polarities of extreme SL bias and extreme TL bias. Preliminaries to translation as a product 23 Another point one must query about the principle of objective equivalent effect concerns the requirement that the TT should replicate the effects of the ST on its original audience. Una vez que el elector haya escogido la papeleta de voto, la introducir en el sobre de votacin y lo cerrar, y siguiendo las instrucciones correspondientes, lo remitir junto con el certificado de inscripcin en el censo en otro sobre que remitir por correo certificado antes del da 23 de mayo. .] For one thing, technical texts are liable to be innovative why publish them unless they make some new contribution? Phonic/graphic issues Taking a text on the phonic/graphic level means looking at it as a sequence of sound segments (phonemes) if it is an oral text, or as a sequence of letters (graphemes) if it is a written one. . Also fig. 13.3 Legal translation Assignment (i) You are translating a contract, from which the following ST is taken. Es brbaro recorrer el pasado cuando vens desde muy abajo y sabs que todo lo que fuiste, sos o sers, es nada ms que lucha. 10 Saben de dnde vengo? So far, then, we have suggested that there are three basic types of translationlike process, defined according to the degree in which the TT abstracts from, adds to, or tries to reproduce faithfully, the details contained in the ST message. Buentorax: Le ruego me perdone.
The translators aim is not necessarily to find equivalent linguistic forms in the TL but to achieve comparable effects, and where there is a gap between these objectives, the most effective compensation strategies will often be those that focus on the kind of process at work in the ST rather than on the particular linguistic features that generate it. . This is particularly likely to happen when the two vowels are the same: le/e/re/mos > lee/re/mos. Rodrguez Mndez, J.M. pastoral theology, that branch of theology which deals with religious truth in its relation to the spiritual needs of men, and the cure of souls: see PASTORAL a. However, since technical translation is a far more marketable skill than literary translation, and since most language students are, owing to their lack of training in science or technology, in awe of technical texts, we consider it worthwhile to devote a separate chapter to problems confronting the translator of texts in this genre. No podis, no veis cmo vos me tratis distinto, tus amigos me llaman La Carbonera, me dicen vos y t me llamas Seora Dorotea y me decs usted. The price and details of the payment of the deposit are laid out in Estipulaciones, which also covers the protection of both Legal and financial translation 241 parties should the sale fall through. . . cohesion the explicit and transparent linking of sentences and larger sections of text by the use of overt linguistic devices that act as signposts for the cogency of a text. phonic/graphic level the level of linguistic structure concerned with the patterned organization of sound-segments (phonemes) in speech, or of letters (graphemes) in writing. (iii) He gave me a book. For instance, suppose that a mother asked her son to get the blue pen from the top left-hand drawer of the bureau, and he responded by giving her a black one that happened to be handy. Note also that differences in linguistic etiquette may lead native speakers of English to overuse the expression por favor, particularly from the perspective of conventions in Spain (though the influence of Anglo-American culture is leading to its increased usage among native Spanish speakers). (For a concise survey in English of dialectal variation in Spanish, see Mackenzie 2001.)
Se resolvi ltimamente dejar los peridicos libres, pero ejercer una gran vigilancia. Though a truism, this fact has important implications. And the LORD said, Behold, the people is one, and they have all one language; and this they begin to do: and now nothing will be restrained from them, which they have imagined to do. . Could we not simply put it down as a necessary consequence of the transition from one language to another, and forget about it? Un to guay, nada que ver con el pesado de Ral. Un da encontr una artesa con arcilla y se precipit sobre ella, horas y horas model la arcilla mientras yo, de espaldas, fnga no preocuparme por su tarea. . Leech, G. (1974) Semantics, Harmondsworth: Pelican. Dubbing allows oral features of accent, intonation and rhythm to be reproduced, but the need to synchronize the oral TT with the gestures, facial expressions and lip movements of the screen actors may have the effect of pushing the translator towards retaining ST structures and therefore limiting communicative translation. Consider, for example, the many minutely differentiated prefixes and suffixes that can be attached to the root sulph: perbidehypohydro- sulph -ate -ite -ide -onate Obviously, the slightest error in affixation here will constitute a major factual error, whereas, in non-technical language, slight differences in affixation may often go unnoticed. As we have suggested, it should not be forgotten that collocative clashes may be used deliberately. Its guiding structural principle is turn-taking, that is, the rule-governed alternation between participant speakers, who signal their understanding of each others utterances and fill in any gaps in the explicit verbal content. Online. her is an idiomatically necessary particularization of esta; using the literally exact demonstrative pronoun this would have made the TT grammatically stilted. (Rodrguez Mndez 1979: 1756) 5 10 15 20 25 Dialect, sociolect and code-switching 209 Target text RICARD Well, then . The notation brings out clearly and concisely the metric patterns, and the variations in them, which are so fertile a source of special textual effects. Other collocative meanings need to be activated by the context, as with the humorous innuendo in I rode shotgun on the way to the wedding, based on activating the collocative echo of shotgun wedding. Second, one can assess a TT, whether ones own or somebody elses, by isolating and comparing the formal variables of both ST and TT. (1979) Bodas que fueron famosas del Pingajo y la Fandanga; Flor de Otoo, Madrid: Ctedra. Oral conversation tends to be associated with informality, familiarity and spontaneity, oral address with a greater degree of formality, decorum and preparation; most forms of written language are in general likely to be more formal and controlled than most forms of oral language. This is the system you should use whenever you annotate your own TTs.) The shorter lines are more usual than the pentameter in songs, ballads and light verse. Are only the documents technical? Contextual information The text is an extract from Julio Cortzars Rayuela (1984; first published 1963). All that is needed is a rough framework of genre types to help a translator to concentrate on characteristics that make the ST a representative specimen of a particular source-culture genre. Even when hypotactic structures are used in English, the subordinating conjunction or relative pronoun is often omitted in informal registers: He said [that] hed come later; I want the car [that] we looked at yesterday. Dent. Practical 9.2 reprinted from Rubn Daro, Sinfona en gris mayor, Prosas profanas y otros poemas, ed. (1994) El florido pensil: memoria de la escuela nacionalcatlica, Barcelona: Crtica. In general, as we shall see, the more prominently a particular textual variable contributes to triggering effects and meanings in a text, and the more it coincides in this with other textual variables in conveying related meanings and effects, the more important it is. Londres, Pars, Nueva York, Bruselas, Madrid o Barcelona experimentan ya este argumento esttico en sus mejores escaparates, mostrando un avance de las colecciones femeninas 5 ms extremado que en temporadas pasadas. However, many linguists agree that, when referring to humans, there is a tendency for feminine nouns to refer to women, and masculine ones to refer to men; as in la secretaria, el secretario or el cocinero, la cocinera. . The two children of mine whore still alive . Usaban a este fin de pantalones ajustados con cremalleras en las pantorrillas y de los debidos conocimientos folklricos y rtmicos. In particular, mentioning meaning or the semantic properties of languages (and therefore also of texts) tends to evoke first and foremost the level of individual words. Practical 7.1 TT reprinted with kind permission from Javier Maras, A Heart So White, translated by Margaret Jull Costa, copyright 1992 Javier Maras, English translation, copyright 1995 The Harvill Press, reprinted by permission of New Directions Publishing Corp. Hickey, L. (1998) Perlocutionary Equivalence: Marking, Exegesis and Recontextualization, in L. Hickey (ed.) Reglamento is of the lowest level of jurisdiction and controls and develops administrative functions and the rights and duties of citizens not otherwise regulated. Se les pona grillete a los papeles?
His very first play, En la ardiente oscuridad, is modern. Gallego, C. (1990) Adelaida, Madrid: Mars-Velasco. Water is chilled by heat transfer from ice with which it is in contact. Some kinds of conversation (such as giving evidence in court) are tightly constrained and formalized, while some kinds of oral address (a stand-up comedy act, for example) deliberately aim for the lowest register they can get away with, as well as giving prepared material an air of spontaneity. . Luckily, once this has been done, it is legitimate to recast the sentence or split it up, so that the message is instantly clearer. . Titles of related interest Thinking Arabic Translation A course in translation method: Arabic to English James Dickins, Sndor Hervey and Ian Higgins Thinking German Translation A course in translation method: German to English Sndor Hervey, Ian Higgins and Michael Loughridge Thinking Italian Translation A course in translation method: Italian to English Sndor Hervey, Ian Higgins, Stella Cragie and Patrizia Gambarotta Routledge Encyclopedia of Translation Studies Second edition Mona Baker and Gabriela Saldanha In Other Words A coursebook on translation Mona Baker Becoming a Translator An accelerated course Douglas Robinson The Scandals of Translation Lawrence Venuti Translation Studies Susan Bassnett Thinking Spanish Translation A course in translation method: Spanish to English Second edition Louise M. Haywood Michael Thompson Sndor Hervey First published 1995 by Routledge This edition published in 2009 by Routledge 2 Park Square, Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 4RN Simultaneously published in the USA and Canada by Routledge 270 Madison Ave, New York, NY 10016 Routledge is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an informa business 1995 Sndor Hervey, Ian Higgins and Louise M. Haywood, 2009 Louise M. Haywood, Michael Thompson and Sndor Hervey Typeset in Times New Roman PS by Florence Production Ltd, Stoodleigh, Devon All rights reserved. He provides a list of organizations that have registers of available translations, including Aslib (The Association of Special Libraries and Information Bureaux).
As a result, the word has not been easy to use in a positive way in the context of a democratic, secular and decentralized Spain, although attempts have been made to re-establish it, including the lyrics proposed in 2007 as a new national anthem for sporting events. He was an excellent constructor of sonnets and, above all, an inspired creator of solid, cohesive structures lacking nothing and with nothing superfluous, an extremely important factor in poetry. (Montero 1981: 12) 10 Subject pronouns The translation problem most likely to arise from the fact that a verb can be used in Spanish without specifying its subject is that a Spanish speaker has a choice about whether to use a subject pronoun, while an English speaker does not. Note that these departures have not been forced on the translator by the dictates of TL grammar. . . Ay que la noche llegaba! The first paragraph, consisting of four unconnected sentences, is deliberately undermarked for cohesion but creates coherence by building up a series of elements that link noise and patriotic fervour. Adems, a m no me trate de usted, hombre, que me dan remilgos. . con + noun) Frequent use of adverbs formed by addition of -ly to an adjective Verbs: tense 16 A more elaborate system than in English: 11 tenses of the indicative (+ 9 progressive forms) and complete conjugation The system is relatively simple: 8 tenses of the indicative (+ 8 progressive forms) and minimal inflection 17 Clear aspectual difference between the preterite tense (perfective) and the imperfect (imperfective) The simple past is used for both perfective and imperfective aspects 18 Limited use of continuous/ progressive forms (Estoy trabajando) Frequent use of progressive forms (Im working), even with a future sense (Were going tomorrow) Verbs: mood 19 Extensive use in all registers of all tenses of the subjunctive except the future Subjunctive forms little used (or often not recognized as such); preference for modal auxiliaries to express mood Verbs: passive voice 20 Tendency to use alternatives to passive constructions (se phrases or active constructions, sometimes with an impersonal 3rd-person subject) Frequent use of the passive, often in order to highlight the object of the action or place it before the verb Copulative verbs 21 Clear differentiation between ser and estar in terms of meaning and aspect To be has a wide semantic range, covering the meanings of both ser and estar Phrasal verbs 22 The effects achieved with phrasal verbs in English are expressed in Spanish by a variety of means, including verbs that contain the movement indicated (go down = bajar) and basic verbs of motion expanded by the addition of a gerund (limp out = salir cojeando) Frequency and expressiveness of use of phrases consisting of verb + preposition/adverb of movement 117 118 Syntactical, morphological and discourse issues 12 Sentence and discourse structure: length and complexity of sentences; hypotaxis and parataxis The idea that Spanish favours long, complex sentences and more cohesively articulated discourse while English favours shorter, simpler sentences and fewer discourse connectors should be taken not as a hard-and-fast rule but as a general difference of tendency, mostly with reference to planned discourse written texts and formal oral language. El punto ms alto, la cumbre del Tibidabo (532 metros sobre el nivel del mar) es el mirador ideal de la Ciudad, punto turstico de fcil acceso, en el que se erige la baslica, an sin terminar, dedicada al Sagrado Corazn, cuya fundacin inici San Juan Bosco. M. P. Holt, New Brunswick, NJ: Estreno. La dej secar y la puse sobre el escritorio para probarle que su obra me agradaba. Serrano Cueto, J.M. Believe every thing they tell you about Colombia . Se tomaron los datos correspondientes a un tiempo estimado en horas de 1.800 horas paciente/docente-alumno. In practice, however, we have found that if almost no material is given unseen and students prepare thoroughly prior to class, then the course can be delivered in sessions of fifty minutes, with plenty of time for discussion. Using the term loss rather than, for example, difference may seem unduly negative. In conjunction with the practical purpose for which a translation is being carried out, systematic analysis of the features of the source text and their relative importance is crucial to the formulation of a translation strategy. html (accessed 31 March 2008). 1801 for source text and target text. This book is, therefore, only theoretical to the extent that it encourages a thoughtful consideration of the rationale behind solutions to practical problems encountered in the process of translation or in evaluating translations as texts serving particular purposes. Anything else is effeminate clothing . Es lo nico que os queda, morir como hombres. .] . or Workers . Serve at once on a large heated dish. Sin nada en juego. Ejrcito Zapatista de Liberacin Nacional (2005a) Sexta Declaracin de la Selva Lacandona. How often this is done will depend on local conditions; in our situation we have found that once a fortnight works well. . (Amestoy 2001: 18) A relatively staccato style of this kind should be achievable without great difficulty in English and should not be turned into more flowing, hypotactic discourse: Buero does not shy away from modernity, the esperpento. There are three main ways in which a particular text 58 Genre: text type and purpose can cut across basic genre distinctions. (Empiezan a sonar unas guitarras.) For example, if Liza Johnson continued to be nicknamed as La Bella (as she is in the ST), and if Julian Smythe were portrayed as having lived all his life in Madrid, or as a keen aficionado of bullfighting, the effect would be incongruous.