J. Res. Similarly, the usage of aggressive metaphors tend to mobilize voters with aggressive traits and demobilizes strong partisans lower in aggression (Kalmoe, 2019). Supplementary Table SA2 in the Appendix reports a series of models where we have regressed, for each personality vignette, the candidate thermometer scores on the interaction between perceived candidate personality and the respondent strength of partisanship (binary variable, 0 low, 1 strong). The importance of candidate selection is not only for the candidates and their parties, but also for their parent legislature and its performance it influences the balance of power within the party, determines the personal composition of parliaments, and impacts on the behavior of legislators. Sci. Mutz and Reeves, (2005) show that exposure to uncivil content lowers political trust in respondents that dislike conflicts, Nai and Maier, (2020a) present several instances in which darker personality traits of voters meaningfully moderate the effectiveness of negative and uncivil campaign messages. We find significant interaction terms in three cases - agreeableness, emotional stability, and psychopathy (respectively, models M2, M4, and M7 in Supplementary Table SA2). The patients/participants provided their written informed consent to participate in this study. The definition of candidate selection methods is the predominantly nonstandardized and unregimented mechanisms by which political parties choose their candidates for the general elections. 37 (6), 504528. J. Soc. (2012). Business Ethics 128 (1), 8393. doi:10.1177/0149206308318618. Psychol.

Responses range on a 0100 scale where low scores signal an unfavorable or cold opinion and high scores a favorable or warm one (M = 58.38, SD = 26.18). Elect. Are samples drawn from Mechanical Turk valid for research on political ideology? Furthermore, M2 suggests that the moderating role of party strength is also a function of respondents dark personality traits. Retrieved 24 November 2020 from Available at: https://psyarxiv.com/4vypw/. In this sense, they are ill-suited to provide information to project general trends to the population at large (e.g., electoral predictions based on voting intentions). Ind. Experimental evidence from the United States and Australia. 20 (3), 351368. doi:10.1017/psrm.2016.37, Garzia, D., Ferreira da Silva, F., and De Angelis, A. (2020). Put otherwise, for these three traits we can confirm the expectation that respondents with weak party attachment use cues related to the personality of candidates to make up their mind about the likeability of said candidates - much more so compared to respondents with strong party attachment. doi:10.1111/ajps.12081. Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). (2018). Thousand Oaks: Sage. 36 (6), 556563. Federal Election Commission (2019). Personal. Book, A., Visser, B. In all models the dependent variable is the feeling thermometer for the fictive candidate, and ranges between 0 very cold and 100 very warm feelings towards him. J. Res. Druckman, J. N., and Lupia, A.

Model M3 controls for respondents partisan identification and adds an interaction term between partisan identification and type of personality vignette (Dark Triad or Big Five) respondents were exposed to. Desired personality traits in politicians: similar to me but more of a leader. Q. 80 (4), 13111325. A HEXACO analysis of the presidential candidates public personas. To what extent is the (perceived) personality of political candidates associated with their likeability by the public at large? The analyses are run on a final sample of N = 1,971 respondents. Research Term shall have the meaning set forth in Section 2.3.1. Personal. 23 (1), 1123. Behav. 41% of respondents declare being very interested in politics, and only 2% declare no interest at all. FIGURE 1. Chirumbolo, A., and Leone, L. (2010). Can anyone be objective about Donald Trump? FIGURE 3.

125 (5), 656688. A. 4 (1), 162. Public users can however freely search the site and view the abstracts and keywords for each book and chapter. Personality and the foundations of political behavior. Marginal effects with 95% confidence intervals, based on coefficients in Table 2, Model M1. Exposure to candidates with dark personality traits increases positive feelings for the candidate among respondents with dark personality traits. Personal. Relationships between Machiavellianism, organizational culture, and workplace bullying: emotional abuse from the targets and the perpetrators perspective. Importantly, we do not expect this general effect to exist across the board. In this article we tackle this issue via innovative experimental data. Collaboration has the meaning set forth in Section 2.1. Choosing leaders with a particular personality profile can potentially lead to serious political consequences. 33 (3), 331341. 10 (12), 126134. 7th Edn. (2013). The electoral success of angels and demons. (2019). Research Plan shall have the meaning set forth in Section 2.1. However, as this is also the case with respect to partisanship voters strongly prefer candidates of their party disentangling the specific effect of personality from the effects of partisanship is not a trivial task. The rationale supporting this expectation is twofold. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.59.7.581, Caprara, G. V., Barbaranelli, C., Chris Fraley, R., and Vecchione, M. (2007). Polit. Making 17 (4), 297311. Methods 48, 400407. Assess. A. 1Minnesota has only eight Congressional districts. The average thermometer score associated with all vignettes is illustrated in Figure 2. Attentive Turkers: MTurk participants perform better on online attention checks than do subject pool participants. The Supplementary Material for this article can be found online at: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpos.2021.636745/full#supplementary-material. The so-called Dark Triad identifies three malevolent components: narcissism, psychopathy, and Machiavellianism (Paulhus and Williams, 2002). Am. First, we expect that the detrimental role of the dark personality profile of candidates, expected to exist in general (H1), does not exist among a specific set of respondents: those who themselves score higher on those dark traits. doi:10.1177/107319110000700408, Schaffner, B. F., and Streb, M. J. There is a long tradition that aims to conceptualize, measure, and describe individual personality traits. How abbreviated measures of personality change the way we think about personality and politics. (2018). Personalizing politics: a congruency model of political preference. J. Behav. Finally, the fictive candidate was asked to identify which fictional character he would like to be for just a single day. The use of fictional character to illustrate personality traits and facets is relatively common in the literature. In all models the dependent variable is the feeling thermometer for the fictive candidate, and ranges between 0 very cold and 100 very warm feelings towards him. Therefore, the more voters acknowledge their own pattern of behavior in a political leader, the more they may assume that the leader in question also shares their own principles (Caprara and Vecchione, 2017, p. 236). caribbean islands route did settle settlers island colonize swee moment via take getty step J. Pers Soc. Personal. Res. Q. They use evaluative impression formation of candidates by organizing and summarizing a diverse body of information in relatively simple terms [ which] ultimately determine voters likes and dislikes of candidates (Caprara et al., 2002, p. 78). Psychol. Such results underline the relevance of personality for political decision making. Because voters perception of political figures has been shown to be a function of their partisan preferences (e.g., Hyatt et al., 2018; Nai and Maier, 2019; Fiala et al., 2020), assigning a clear partisan identity to the fictive candidate would have introduced a perceptual bias in both how respondents assess the profile of the candidate (personality traits) and their general evaluation (thermometer) - which we feared not being able to disentangle empirically. Feeling thermometer by exposure to candidate personality vignettes, respondents dark traits, and strength of partisanship. Am.

(2012). (2012) refer, to illustrate the dark traits of narcissism, psychopathy and Machiavellianism, to the fictive characters of James Bond, Hannibal Lecter, and House, M.D. J. Polit. Collaboration Program has the meaning set forth in Section 1.6.1. doi:10.1177/0956797613491970, Weinschenk, A. C., and Panagopoulos, C. (2014). The double-edged sword of grandiose narcissism: implications for successful and unsuccessful leadership among U.S. Presidents. Is negative campaigning a matter of taste? FIGURE 5. doi:10.1080/17457289.2019.1632318, Nai, A., and Maier, J. On the other hand, this mechanism perfectly overlaps with the general homophily (or congruence) effect - that is, the established notion that voters are often more likely to support candidates with personalities that match their own (Caprara et al., 2003; Caprara and Zimbardo, 2004; Caprara et al., 2007; but see; Klingler et al., 2018). Commercialization means any and all activities directed to the preparation for sale of, offering for sale of, or sale of a Product, including activities related to marketing, promoting, distributing, and importing such Product, and interacting with Regulatory Authorities regarding any of the foregoing. Additional filters are available in search. We also expected respondents with a weaker party identification to be more likely to be affected by the candidates personality cues - because they are more likely to use such cues heuristically. Development Candidate means a pre-clinical Licensed Product which possesses desirable properties of a therapeutic agent for the treatment of a clinical condition based on in vitro and animal proof-of-concept studies. West European Politics. For instance, the emotional stability vignette reads as follows for the answer to the journalist question what is politics to you?: Politics is being able to take the best decision in the most calm and nuanced way possible. Candidates aversive personality traits and negative campaigning in the 2018 American Midterms. Research Program Term means the term of the Research Program set forth in Section 2.2. candidate selection, political parties, definition of candidate selection, importance of candidate selection, research on candidate selection, political recruitment, realistic candidacies, democratization. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2010.03.004, Clifford, S., Jewell, R. M., and Waggoner, P. D. (2015). MTurk provides convenience samples, which should not be assumed to be representative of the general US population. Similarly, recent experimental evidence shows darker forms of political communication, such as negativity and incivility, are appreciated by voters with specific personality profiles (e.g., Weinschenk and Panagopoulos, 2014; Nai and Maier, 2020a). Simply put: dark voters like dark candidates. Supplemental Figure SA in the Appendix illustrates the average score on all the personality traits for the fictive candidate as estimated by the respondents, depending on which vignette they were exposed to (bars in each panel). The partisan heuristic in low-information elections. Individual Differences 71, 181184. 2 (4), 115.doi:10.1177/2053168015622072, Cred, M., Harms, P., Niehorster, S., and Gaye-Valentine, A. Feeling thermometer by candidate and respondent personality traits. Since all three components of the Dark Triad - narcissism, psychopathy, and Machiavellianism - point towards the direction of anti-social behavior, and voters tend to prefer leaders with a positive personality (Aichholzer and Willmann, 2020), we expect that voters tend, on average, to dislike dark candidates.

Psychol. This being said, narcissism is often linked to overconfidence and deceit (Campbell et al., 2004), a marked preference for hypercompetitiveness (Watson et al., 1998), reckless behavior and risk-taking (Campbell et al., 2004). (2016), for instance, shows that it is especially voters scoring lower on agreeableness that tend to appreciate populist candidates (themselves scoring particularly lower on agreeableness, Nai and Martinez i Coma, 2019). We created eight imaginary magazine interviews with a fictive candidate - independent Paul A. Bauer, running for a seat in the US House of Representatives for Minnesota's 9th Congressional district.1 Each mock interview was set up to cue respondents towards a specific personality trait of the fictive candidate, using both the framing of the journalist conducting the interview and the candidate response. 22 (2), 420. doi:10.1037/a0019265, Jonason, P. K. (2014). The authors wish to thank the special issue editors and anonymous reviewers for their comments and inputs on previous versions of the article.

Personal. (2020). This book focuses on realistic candidacies, which include all those list positions or districts that are seen at least as winnable before the elections, and on the trend toward democratization within parties. Fifth, this study is limited to a very specific case, the United States, known for harsh electoral competition and entrenched affective polarization (Iyengar et al., 2019). doi:10.2307/23260322, Berinsky, A. J., Margolis, M. F., and Sances, M. W. (2014). Polit. If you think you should have access to this title, please contact your librarian. doi:10.1037/a0027914, Kalmoe, N. P. (2019). Psychol. A., and Volk, A. kamil miriam Separating the shirkers from the workers? 3 (4), 487496. Similarly, Schumacher and Zettler (2019) contrasts the two opposed personas of the fictive US presidents Josiah Bartlett (The West Wing) and Frank Underwood (House of Cards) to illustrate higher and lower scores on the Honesty-Humility trait in the HEXACO inventory. Feeling thermometer by candidate and respondent personality traits. Because conscientiousness represents an ideal trait for political leaders (and is also the trait that is more likely to drive better electoral results for competing candidates; Nai, 2019), we use exposure to the conscientiousness vignette as the reference category - that is, the effects of exposure to the other vignettes are computed against exposure to this vignette. At the end of the day, only nuanced and rational decisions matter.. Collaboration Know-How means Know-How that is within the Collaboration Intellectual Property. 10.5964/jspp.v2i1.280, Wilcox, C., Sigelman, L., and Cook, E. (1989). Feeling thermometer per candidate personality vignette. Indeed, much evidence exists that the perception of candidates' personality traits is a direct function of partisan preferences(e.g., Hyatt et al., 2018; Nai and Maier, 2019; Fiala et al., 2020). The combination of these different questions yields a 5-point scale, taking the values 1 for Strong Democrat (25.1%), 2 for Leaning Democrat (respondents that feel weakly attached to the Democratic party or that declared themselves independents but feel closer to that party; 26.9%), 3 for Independent (including those who do not lean in either direction; 11.7%), 4 for leaning Republican (19.2%), and 5 for Strong Republican (17.1%). Nai, A., and Maier, J. (2002). 58 (3), 739753. (2010). doi:10.1016/j.paid.2018.12.028. Heuristics in context. doi:10.5964/jspp.v7i2.918, Paolacci, G., and Chandler, J. Most notably, consistent evidence exists that candidate and voter traits are systematically linked to each other, in such a way that that voters are more likely to support candidates with personalities that match their own (e.g., Caprara et al., 2003; Caprara and Zimbardo, 2004; Fortunato et al., 2018). Res. Sci. Strength of partisanship is thus computed among respondents that think of themselves as either a Republican or a Democrat, and takes the value 0 if this identification is perceived as weak, and 1 if this identification is perceived as strong. (2020). Eur. doi:10.1177/1532673X18765190, Fortunato, D., and Stevenson, R. T. (2019). After random exposure to one of the eight personality vignettes, respondents were asked to rate the candidate using two short personality batteries: the TIPI for the Big Five (Gosling et al., 2003) and the Dirty Dozen for the Dark Triad (Jonason and Webster, 2010). Spezio, M. L., Loesch, L., Gosselin, F., Mattes, K., and Alvarez, R. M. (2012). Int. Drawing inspiration from these works, the fictional candidate refers in the interview to two fictive characters he would like to be for one day, with the idea that such characters reflect his personality, thereby amplifying the cueing potential of the vignette.2 The mock magazine interview included a picture of the fictive Paul A. Bauer; in actuality a portrait of former Swiss federal councilor Didier Burkhalter, who reflects, in our opinion, a perfectly generic stereotype of the political norm: a normal white, middle-aged male candidate. An evaluation of the consequences of using short measures of the Big Five personality traits. Nai, A., and Maier, J. Psychol. doi:10.1111/pops.12321, Veselka, L., Schermer, J. Evaluating online labor markets for experimental research: Amazon.com's Mechanical Turk. In May 2020 we fielded a survey among a convenience sample of 2,010 US respondents via Amazons Mechanical Turk (MTurk; Paolacci and Chandler, 2014), an online crowd-sourced data platform. Furthermore, our findings suggest that the personality profile of voters and the (perceived) personality profile of candidates interact with each other. Psychol.

10.1525.collabra.162.pr, Iyengar, S., Lelkes, Y., Levendusky, M., Malhotra, N., and Westwood, S. J. Toward a histology of social behavior: judgmental accuracy from thin slices of the behavioral stream. You could not be signed in, please check and try again. . All materials, data, and syntaxes are available for replication in the following OSF repository: https://osf.io/wxruy/. 41 (1), 270283. There is no direct effect of party identification which makes sense as the fictional candidate has been introduced as an Independent. Respondents personality traits. There are good reasons to expect that voters tend to dislike candidates with such dark traits. Elections are usually considered a mechanism through which voters decide in which direction a polity should be heading policy-wise: What measures should be taken to boost the economy? doi:10.1080/01402382.2019.1599570, Nai, A. Am. This section presents evidence suggesting that the personality of candidates goes a long way indeed - and especially for some. doi:10.1016/S0092-6566(03)00046-1, Harms, P. D., and DeSimone, J. Figure 5 substantiates all interaction effects in Supplementary Table SA2, with marginal effects. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2016.10.053, Watson, P. J., Morris, R. J., and Miller, L. (1998). Hence, it is unclear whether the effects we find can be generalized for candidates running for the Democratic or the Republican Party. (2014). Dir.

J. Pers 60 (2), 175215. Because strong partisanship helps voters navigate the complex and treacherous waters of contemporary politics, it is no surprise that party attachment is one of the most important cognitive heuristics in their toolbox (Lau and Redlawsk, 2001; Schaffner and Streb, 2002; Fortunato and Stevenson, 2019). The simplicity of politicians' personalities across political context: an anomalous replication. (2020). The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. Polit. In particular, the analyses found that voters that themselves score higher on dark personality traits (narcissism, psychopathy, Machiavellianism) tend to like dark candidates. Res. Among those respondents, 42.1% have a weak partisan attachment, and 57.9% have a strong one. Individual Differences 106, 281286. Personal. Soc. The origins and consequences of affective polarization in the United States. 66 (4), 559581. West Eur. Methods 7 (2), 311330. Personalities of politicians and voters: unique and synergistic relationships. Personality and politics: the role of the HEXACO model of personality in predicting ideology and voting. 17 (3), 249259. Party elites preferences in candidates: evidence from a conjoint experiment. Keywords: Personal. In all models the dependent variable is the feeling thermometer for the fictive candidate, and ranges between 0 very cold and 100 very warm feelings towards him. 3:636745. doi: 10.3389/fpos.2021.636745. Candidates personality traits have stronger effects on candidate likeability among respondents with weak party attachment. doi:10.1086/343755, Schumacher, G., and Zettler, I. Partisan dealignment and the personalisation of politics in West European parliamentary democracies, 19612018. Feeling thermometer by perceived personality trait. Model M1 shows that candidates framed as higher in agreeableness and emotional stability receive somewhat higher ratings on the feeling thermometer, whereas candidates framed as higher in openness receive lower scores. Development Team means the entities and professionals assembled to develop and manage the Project, typically including the Applicant, Owner, Developer(s), Co-Developer(s) and general partner or any other related entities in which the Developer or Co-Developer has an identity of interest or a Controlling Interest. doi:10.1016/S0092-6566(02)00505-6, Penney, L. M., and Spector, P. E. (2002). Res. Personalizing politics and realizing democracy. Individuals higher in psychopathy tend to have a more lenient approach to anti-social behaviors, which they often lack the ability to recognize. (2017). But it is for the Dark Triad that we see the most impressive effects. In this case, assessing how voters perceive specific personality traits - and the effects of such perceptions - is contaminated by their (pre-existing) political opinions about Trump refracted through the lens of partisanship. Models including, e.g., other candidate perceptions (for instance, competence, integrity) as well as a candidates stance on important issues are necessary to assess the true impact of psychological personality traits, especially in light of the fact that personality is often contingent to political leanings (and thus, likely, policy propositions). Sci. Behav. The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. The main objective of this article is to assess the effect that (dark) personality profiles of political candidates have on shaping how voters perceive them - both directly, and as a function of individual differences in voters themselves (personality, partisanship). Science 335 (2), 11771179. Individual Differences 48 (6), 772774. Copy this link, or click below to email it to a friend. Exposure to a dark trait, compared to exposure to a Big Five trait, reduces positive feelings for the candidate up to 26 points. We thus expect the following: H2. Imagination, Cogn. FIGURE 2. In this article, we attempt to contribute to a better understanding of how candidates (perceived) personality traits influence their likeability, and the role of voters individual differences and partisanship. doi:10.1177/1532673X20965548, Nai, A., and Maier, J. N = 1,971. Sci. More recent studies suggest that humans, in addition to the rather positively valenced traits assessed via the BFI, can have socially aversive - yet non-pathological - traits (Moshagen et al., 2018). AN and JV developed the initial framing of the experimental treatments and protocol. (2018). doi:10.2307/2669334, Lilienfeld, S. O., Waldman, I. D., Landfield, K., Watts, A. L., Rubenzer, S., and Faschingbauer, T. R. (2012). Sci. Collabra: Psychol. Psychol. Psychol. Stud. Does exposure to candidates with a dark personality drive more negative perceptions of these candidates? Personal. (2020b). doi:10.1016/j.paid.2014.09.016, Campbell, W. K., Goodie, A. S., and Foster, J. D. (2004). Public Opin. Voter perceptions of president Donald Trumps personality disorder traits: implications of political affiliation. The Trump draw: voter personality and support for Donald Trump in the 2016 republican nomination campaign. Do voters judge the performance of female and male politicians differently? The recent U.S. presidential elections provide a clear example that voters were asked not only to make a choice between competing sets of policies, but also between different personalities (e.g., Visser et al., 2017; Nai and Maier, 2018; Book et al., 2020). TABLE 3. J. Pers Soc. Lead Compound means any compound of lead other than galena which, when treated in the manner described below, yields to an aqueous solution of hydrochloric acid a quantity soluble lead compound exceeding, when calculated as lead monoxide, five percent of the dry weight of the portion taken analysis. The Big Five Inventory (BFI; McCrae and John, 1992) is the most studied personality inventory, and the most widely used to study the effects of personality on political attitudes and behavior (e.g., Mondak, 2010). A., Book, A. S., and Volk, A. H3. What a Joe Biden presidency would mean for five key science issues. (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2022. These components have been shown to be associated to political attitudes and behaviors (e.g., Arvan, 2013; Jonason, 2014). With this in mind Figure 3 plots, for each trait, the marginal effect of trait perception on the candidate likeability (feeling thermometer). Models M1 and M2 confirm, in other terms, that darker personality traits are detrimental for the likeability of competing candidates. And, if so, for whom?

The personality traits of political candidates, and the way these are perceived by the public at large, matter for political representation and electoral behavior. Preliminary trends discussed in this article were presented during the 2020 (virtual) Annual Meeting of the European Consortium for Political Research (ECPR, panel Personalization in Contemporary Political Communication); many thanks to all participants for valuable inputs. When parsimony subdues distinctiveness: simplified public perceptions of politicians personality. Disentangling the effects of partisanship and perceived personality on candidate evaluations is however notoriously a tricky business, as voters tend to evaluate the personality of candidates based on their partisan preferences. When used as a verb, to Commercialize and Commercializing means to engage in Commercialization, and Commercialized has a corresponding meaning.

Marginal effects with 95% confidence intervals, based on coefficients in Supplementary Table SA1 (Appendix). Front. All Rights Reserved. doi:10.1111/j.1467-6494.1992.tb00970.x, McDermott, M. L. (1997). Is Hillary dishonest and Donald narcissistic? doi:10.1016/j.paid.2016.05.019, Xu, X., Soto, C. J., and Plaks, J. E. (2020). The personality of populists: provocateurs, charismatic leaders, or drunken dinner guests?