[199][200], The initial master plan for the redevelopment of Ellis Island, designed by Philip Johnson, called for the construction of the Wall, a large "stadium"-shaped monument to replace the structures on the island's northwest side, while preserving the main building and hospital. [309][310][311] The islands ceased to be used for quarantine by the 1920s due to the decline in inspections at Ellis Island. [323][317][321] Some immigrants supposedly wiped the chalk marks off surreptitiously or inverted their clothes to avoid medical detention. [296] At the time of closure, it was estimated that closer to 20 million immigrants had been processed or detained at Ellis Island. [300] Eventually, these groups of peoples slowed in the rates that they were coming in, and immigrants came in from Southern and Eastern Europe, including Jews. [222] In advance of the renovation, public tours ceased in 1984, and work started the following year. It eventually obliterated the oyster beds, engulfed one of the Oyster Islands, and brought the shoreline much closer to the others. Formerly, there was also a two-story porch on the southern elevation. One man, William Williams, served twice as commissioner. [256] Completed as a two-story structure c.19081909,[129][132][139] the baggage and dormitory building replaced a 700-bed wooden barracks nearby that operated between 1903 and 1911. According to the award's sponsors, the medal is given to those who "have distinguished themselves within their own ethnic groups while exemplifying the values of the American way of life. [19] The government bought the underwater area for island 3 from New Jersey in 1904,[135][136] and a contract was awarded in April 1905. [70][216][217] The plan for Ellis Island was to cost $128 million,[218] and by the time work commenced in 1984, about $40 million had been raised. [138] The entire southern side of the island is in New Jersey, and the majority of the site is occupied by the hospital buildings. [141] In 1911, Williams alleged that Congress had allocated too little for improvements to Ellis Island,[142] even though the improvement budget that year was $868,000.

[374] By 2019, the wall was mostly full and only five panels remained to be inscribed. [19][20] Most of the structures were completed in 1911. [298], Initial immigration policy provided for the admission of most immigrants to the United States, other than those with mental or physical disabilities, or a moral, racial, religious, or economic reason for exclusion. [93], On April 11, 1890, the federal government ordered the magazine at Ellis Island be torn down to make way for the U.S.'s first federal immigration station at the site. [179] The ferryboat Ellis Island, which had operated since 1904, stopped operating two weeks later. [88][89] The individual states had their own varying immigration laws until 1875, but the federal government regarded Castle Clinton as having "varied charges of mismanagement, abuse of immigrants, and evasion of the laws", and as such, wanted it to be completely replaced. [66], The Internal Security Act of 1950 barred members of communist or fascist organizations from immigrating to the United States. The government wanted to determine whether new arrivals would be self-sufficient upon arrival, and on average, wanted the immigrants to have between $18 and $25 (worth between $523 and $727 as of 2021[j]). ellis island immigrants arriving 1920 europe york alamy immigrant usa circa building history 1905 1900 [59] The Department of the Treasury, which was in charge of constructing federal buildings in the U.S.,[94] officially took control of the island that May 24. These people immigrated for a variety of reasons including escaping political and economic oppression, as well as persecution, destitution, and violence. [6] Today, it is part of the Statue of Liberty National Monument and is accessible to the public only by ferry. [256], Formerly, the powerhouse provided almost all power for Ellis Island. [10][8] The island has been owned and administered by the federal government of the United States since 1808 and operated by the National Park Service since 1965. [364] The third floor contains a library, reading room, and "oral history center", while the theaters are located on the first and second floors. [126] Originally designed as two separate structures, it was redesigned in 1899 as a single structure with kitchen-restaurant and laundry-bathhouse components,[251] and was subsequently completed in 1901. [297][179] According to an estimate by The History Channel, about 40% of the population of the United States can trace their ancestry to immigrants who arrived in America at Ellis Island.

Wards I and K are located to the south of the connecting corridor while ward J is located to the north; originally, all three pavilions were freestanding structures, but covered ways were built between wards I and K and the center corridor in 1914. The island was described as a "hummock along a plain fronting the west side of the Hudson River estuary,"[53] and when the glaciers melted, the water of the Upper New York Bay surrounded the mass. [275][276] In 1924, the first floor offices were converted into male nurses' quarters. [214] The NPS limited visits to 130 visitors per boat, or less than 75,000 visitors a year. [385], In 2014, the NPS started offering guided public tours of the south side as part of the "Hard Hat Tour", which charges an additional fee that is used to support Save Ellis Island's preservation efforts.

[324] According to a reconstruction of immigration processes in 1907, immigrants who passed the initial inspections spent two to five hours at Ellis Island to do these interviews. [50] The bridge is not strong enough to be classified as a permanent bridge, and any action to convert it into a pedestrian passageway would require renovations. The Wall Street Crash of 1929 further decreased immigration, as people were now discouraged from immigrating to the U.S.[158] Because of the resulting decline in patient counts, the hospital closed in 1930. [119][236] Their plan, submitted in 1898, called for structures to be located on both the northern and southern portions of Ellis Island. [26][27][28] The era of joint administration was short-lived: the Army took over the fort's administration in 1841, demoted the fort to an artillery battery, and stopped garrisoning the fort, leaving a small Navy guard outside the magazine. [302] Two-thirds of those individuals emigrated from eastern, southern and central Europe. By 1854, Battery Gibson contained an 11-gun battery, three naval magazines, a short railroad line, and several auxiliary structures such as a cookhouse, gun carriage house, and officers' quarters. [226][227][228] Further improvements were made after the north side's renovation was completed. [240] The south elevation of the first floor contains the current immigration museum's main entrance, approached by a slightly sloped passageway covered by a glass canopy. These included sickness and, Mental people who showed signs or history of, Moral people who had "moral defects" at the time were (but not limited to). [8] The artificial land is part of New Jersey. The southern elevation retains its original double-height arches, while the lower sections of the arches on the northern elevations were modified to make way for the railroad ticket office. Two rectangular wings are located to the north and south and are oriented eastwest. [84] Through the 1870s, the Navy built additional buildings for its artillery magazine on Ellis Island,[86] eventually constructing 11 buildings in total. Approximately 4.4% of immigrants between 1909 and 1930 were classified as disabled or diseased, and one percent of immigrants were deported yearly due to medical causes. [157][19][158] Following the Immigration Act of 1924, strict immigration quotas were enacted, and Ellis Island was downgraded from a primary inspection center to an immigrant-detention center, hosting only those that were to be detained or deported (see Mass detentions and deportations). ellis island annie moore immigration photographs immigrant 1st The north side of the island is the site of the main building, now a national museum of immigration. [56][66][55] However, there is scant evidence that this was common practice. Second Floor Plan Ellis Island, Hospital Outbuilding, New York Harbor, New York County, NY", "Ellis Island, Psychopathic Ward, New York Harbor, New York County, NY", "Ellis Island, Recreation Building, New York Harbor, New York County, NY", "7. [293] The ferry building is connected to the kitchen and laundry to the north, and the hospital to the south, via covered walkways. located at the extreme east end of island 3's connecting corridor, is a 2.5-story building for high-ranking hospital staff. "[22][23], As early as 1804, attempts were made to resolve the status of the state line. Jersey City and New York City then gave separate tax lot numbers to their respective claims. [338] When the U.S. entered the war in December 1941, Ellis Island held 279 Japanese, 248 Germans, and 81 Italians removed from the East Coast. [64][58] The island was then sold several more times,[64] including to Enoch and Mary Story. [16], The fill was acquired from the ballast of ships, as well as material excavated from the first line of the New York City Subway. [128][262] The structure is one and a half stories tall with a hip roof and skylights facing to the north and south. [127][132], Immigration commissioner William Williams made substantial changes to Ellis Island's operations, and during his tenure from 1902 to 1905 and 19091913, Ellis Island processed its peak number of immigrants. [19][20], The fill was retained with a system of wood piles and cribbing, and later encased with more than 7,700 linear feet of concrete and granite sea wall. [69] Batteries and magazines were built on Ellis Island in preparation for a war. The first floor contained recreational facilities, while the second floor was used mostly for offices. [327] More than 3,000 attempted immigrants died in the island's hospital. [88][108] Legislation to rebuild the station was approved on June 30, 1897,[110] and appropriations were made in mid-July.

[210] Initially, only parts of three buildings were open to visitors. [58][59][60] When the Dutch settled the area as part of New Netherland, the three islands in Upper New York BayLiberty, Black Tom, and Ellis Islandswere given the name Oyster Islands, alluding to the large oyster population nearby. [19][140][149][148] During the war, immigration processing at Ellis Island declined by 97%, from 878,000 immigrants per year in 1914 to 26,000 per year in 1919. [255], The baggage and dormitory structure is a three-story structure located north of the main building. The recreation shelter, a one-story brick pavilion, is located directly to the east. [277] A one-story morgue is located east of the office building, and was converted to the "Animal House" circa 1919. [11][12], Initially, much of the Upper New York Bay's western shore consisted of large tidal flats with vast oyster beds, which were a major source of food for the Lenape.

From 1892 to 1954, nearly 12 million immigrants arriving at the Port of New York and New Jersey were processed there under federal law. The structures share the same design: a brick facade in Flemish bond, quoins, and limestone ornamentation.

There were also nurses' quarters in each attic. [70][181], After the immigration station closed, the buildings fell into disrepair and were abandoned,[182] and the General Services Administration (GSA) took over the island in March 1955.

[206][205] This was soon halted indefinitely because of a lack of funding. The proportion of "diseased" increased to 8.0% during the Spanish flu of 19181919.

[143], Additional improvements and routine maintenance work were completed in the early 1910s.

Immigrants were asked to drop their baggage and walk up the stairs to the second floor. Ellis Island was one of three "Oyster Islands," the other two being Liberty Island and the now-destroyed Black Tom Island. [173] So many combatants were detained at Ellis Island that administrative offices were moved to mainland Manhattan in 1943, and Ellis Island was used solely for detainment. A clause in the colonial land grant outlined the territory that the proprietors of New Jersey would receive as being "westward of Long Island, and Manhitas Island and bounded on the east part by the main sea, and part by Hudson's river. [57][58] It is unlikely that the Native Americans established permanent settlements on Kioshk, since the island would have been submerged at high tide. [254][255] The first floor generally contained oven rooms, baking areas and storage while the second floor contained the carpentry shop. [19], The new immigration station opened on December 17, 1900, without ceremony. [233][234][235], The current complex was designed by Edward Lippincott Tilton and William A. Boring, who performed the commission under the direction of the Supervising Architect for the U.S. Treasury, James Knox Taylor. [28] Around this time, in 1834, the extant portions of Ellis Island was declared to be an exclave of New York within the waters of New Jersey. [320][318][319], The line inspection at Ellis Island was unique because of the volume of people it processed, and as such, used several unconventional methods of medical examination. Though the canopy was added in the 1980s, it evokes the design of an earlier glass canopy on the site that existed from 1902 to 1932. [71][70][27][32] Lieutenant Colonel Jonathan Williams, placed in charge of New York Harbor defenses in the early 1800s, proposed several new fortifications around the harbor as part of the Second System of fortifications. [111] The competition was the second to be conducted under the Tarsney Act of 1893, which had permitted private architects to design federal buildings, rather than government architects in the Supervising Architect's office. There are auditoriums on all floors. [331] A commodious stockade was built for the seized officers. Also constructed was an administration building adjacent to the hospital. In the 19th century, Ellis Island was the site of Fort Gibson and later became a naval magazine. [197] Ellis Island was added to the Statue of Liberty National Monument on May 11, 1965,[2][198][199] and that August, President Lyndon B. Johnson approved the redevelopment of the island as a museum and park. [19][176][177] The island's closure was announced in mid-1954, when the federal government announced that it would construct a replacement facility on Manhattan. [20][291] The current structure was built in 1936[292] and is the third ferry landing to occupy the site. [171][172][173] As during World War I, the facilities were used to detain enemy soldiers in addition to immigrants, and the hospital was used for treating injured American soldiers. [34] The lawsuit was escalated to the Supreme Court, which ruled in New Jersey v. New York. [44] A concession was granted in 2007 to Statue Cruises to operate the transportation and ticketing facilities, replacing Circle Line, which had operated the service since 1953. A staircase from the first floor formerly rose into the middle of the registry room, but this was also removed around 1911. The powerhouse contains sewage pumps that can dispose of up to 480U.S.gal/min (1,800L/min) to the Jersey City Sewage Authority sewage system. The south side of the island, including the Ellis Island Immigrant Hospital, is open to the public only through guided tours.

[114], Several prominent architectural firms filed proposals,[111][114][115] and by December, it was announced that Edward Lippincott Tilton and William A. Boring had won the competition. Part of the building was converted into a morgue and autopsy room in the 1930s. A hall leading to the connecting corridor was flanked by bathrooms, nurses' duty room, offices, and a serving kitchen. [236][237] There were also dormitories for 600 people on the third floor. [155] These projects were supported by president Calvin Coolidge, who in 1924 requested that Congress approve $300,000 in appropriations for the island. [329] If immigrants were rejected, appeals could be made to a three-member board of inquiry. [294][295] Others would have used one of the other terminals along the North River/Hudson River at that time.

[102][124][125] Almost immediately, additional projects commenced to improve the main structure, including an entrance canopy, baggage conveyor, and railroad ticket office. The determination of admissibility was relatively arbitrary and determined by the individual inspector. The fort went into decline due to under-utilization, and it was being jointly administered by the U.S. Army and Navy by the mid-1830s. [237] However, in practice, these spaces generally served multiple functions throughout the immigration station's operating history. [80][81][82] The fort was initially called Crown Fort, but by the end of the War of 1812 the battery was named Fort Gibson, in honor of Colonel James Gibson of the 4th Regiment of Riflemen, who was killed in the war during the Siege of Fort Erie. [315][316] Immigrants were brought to the island via barge from their transatlantic ships. As part of the project, a concrete and granite seawall was built to connect the tip of these landmasses. [299] At first, the majority of immigrants arriving were Northern and Western Europeans, with the largest numbers coming from the German Empire, the Russian Empire and Finland, the United Kingdom, and Italy. ellis island station 1905 immigrant abt polishorigins immigration [8] This caused some initial confusion, as some buildings straddled the interstate border. [275] It housed doctors' offices and a dispensary on the first floor, along with a laboratory and pharmacists' quarters on the second floor. [283], The administration building is a 3.5-story structure located on the north side of island 3's connecting corridor, in the center of the landmass. This included immigrants who entered in violation of previous exclusion acts; Chinese immigrants in violation of the 1924 act; those convicted of felonies or other "crimes of moral turpitude"; and those involved in prostitution. [119][122] A separate contract to build the 3.33-acre (1.35ha) island 2 had to be approved by the War Department because it was in New Jersey's waters; that contract was completed in December 1898. [62][c] Little Oyster Island was then sold to Captain William Dyre c.1674,[d] then to Thomas Lloyd on April 23, 1686. What About One That's There? [70][210][213][214] The plant was left unrepaired to show the visitors the extent of the deterioration. [186][187] The same year, Frank Lloyd Wright designed the $100 million "Key Project",[h] which included housing, hotels, and large domes along the edges. [285] A one-story kitchen with a smokestack is located opposite the administration building to the south. This consisted of interrogations conducted by U.S. Interior view of Powerhouse Ellis Island, Island 3 Powerhouse, New York Harbor, New York County, NY", "Ellis Island, Contagious Disease Hospital Measles Ward A, New York Harbor, New York County, NY", "Ellis Island, Contagious Disease Hospital Kitchen, New York Harbor, New York County, NY", "Ellis Island, Contagious Disease Hospital Isolation Ward I, New York Harbor, New York County, NY", "Central Railroad of New Jersey Terminal", "Ellis Island Becomes Lonely Way Station for the Seagulls", "Ellis Island Still Holds the Single-Day Record for Immigration Here's Why", "Ellis Island, a gateway to America, marks 125 years", "Most Immigrants Arriving at Ellis Island in 1907 Were Processed in a Few Hours", "Photos: The Strange History of NYC's Swinburne and Hoffman Islands", "Man-made Hoffman Island, just off South Beach, had many uses, among them a quarantine station for immigrants", "New State Hospital On Hoffman Island; The Island Has Been Enlarged to Care for Contagious Disease Patients Entering the Port", "9 Things You May Not Know About Ellis Island", 10.1001/virtualmentor.2008.10.4.mhst1-0804, "Immigration and Deportation at Ellis Island American Experience", "Stockade at Ellis Island; To Be Built That Interned Germans May Have Exercise", "Ellis Island Life Easy For Germans; Idleness and Lack of Beer Chief Drawbacks to Happiness of Interned Seamen", "National Park Service: Confinement and Ethnicity (Chapter 17)", "Before Ebola, Ellis Island's terrifying medical inspections", Biographical Directory of the United States Congress, "New Chief of Ellis Island Finds Higher Type of Aliens", "Why Your Family Name Was Not Changed at Ellis Island (and One That Was)", "Did Ellis Island Officials Really Change the Names of Immigrants? On April 21, 1794, the city deeded that land to the state for public defense purposes. [276] The isolation pavilions were intended for patients for more serious diseases, including scarlet fever, diphtheria, and a combination of either of these diseases with measles and whooping cough. The exterior-facing window and door openings contain limestone features on the facade, while the top of the building has a modillioned copper cornice. [165] The committee's report, released in 1934, suggested the construction of a new class-segregated immigration building, recreation center, ferry house, verandas, and doctors/nurses' quarters, as well as the installation of a new seawall around the island. 1901. [111][115][117][118] The plan also included the creation of a new island called island 2, upon which the hospital would be built, south of the existing island (now Ellis Island's north side). "[348] Likewise, George Lydston, a medicine and criminal anthropology professor, wrote in 1906 that people with "defective physique" were not just criminally associated but that defectiveness was a primary factor "in the causation of crime. [i][301] Average annual immigration through the Port of New York from 1892 to 1924 typically numbered in the hundreds of thousands, though after 1924, annual immigration through the port was usually in the tens of thousands. [340] A total of 7,000 Germans, Italians and Japanese were ultimately detained at Ellis Island. [128] The facilities proved barely able to handle the flood of immigrants that arrived, and as early as 1903, immigrants had to remain in their transatlantic boats for several days due to inspection backlogs. [20][238] It is made of a steel frame and terracotta blocks, with a limestone base and a facade of brick in Flemish bond. [301], Beginning in the 1890s, initial medical inspections were conducted by steamship companies at the European ports of embarkation; further examinations and vaccinations occurred on board ship during the voyage to New York. [256], The powerhouse of Ellis Island is a two-story structure located north of the kitchen and laundry building and west of the baggage and dormitory building. [155][156] The allocations were not received until the late 1920s. [70] Samuel Ryerson, one of Samuel Ellis's grandsons, deeded the island to John A. Berry in 1806. There are four pavilions each to the west and east of island 3's administration building. [95] During construction, most of the old Battery Gibson buildings were demolished, and Ellis Island's land size was almost doubled to 6 acres (2.4ha). [52], The present-day Ellis Island was created by retreating glaciers at the end of the Wisconsin glaciation about 15,000 years ago. [342] As Chicago surgeon Eugene S. Talbot wrote in 1898, "crime is hereditary, a tendency which is, in most cases, associated with bodily defects. [17] It also came from the railyards of the Lehigh Valley Railroad and the Central Railroad of New Jersey. These rooms included offices as well as an assembly room that were later converted to detention. [205] The Jersey City Jobs Corpsmen started rehabilitating part of Ellis Island the same year, in accordance with this plan. [313] Between 1897 and 1902, medical inspections took place both at other facilities in New York City and on ships in the New York Harbor. [320] Chalk-marked immigrants and those with suspected mental disabilities were then sent to rooms for further inspection, according to a 1917 account. The last improvements, which entailed the installation of underwater telephone and telegraph cables to Governors Island, were completed in early June 1897. When the junior Samuel died shortly after birth, ownership passed to the senior Samuel's other two daughters, Elizabeth Ryerson and Rachel Cooder. The name "Little Oyster Island" persisted even though Ellis Island was larger than the former Black Tom Island. [140][144] These facilities generally followed the design set by Tilton and Boring. [307][325] Those who were admitted often met with relatives and friends at the Kissing Post, a wooden column outside the registry room. [140][149][148][331] During the war, six classes of "enemy aliens" were established, including officers and crewmen from interned ships; three classes of Germans; and suspected spies. [35][a], Two ferry slips are located on the northern side of the basin that bisects Ellis Island. [260] After the immigration station closed, the powerhouse deteriorated[214] and was left unrepaired until the 1980s renovation. [160][161][162], Edward Corsi, who himself was an immigrant, became Ellis Island commissioner in 1931 and commenced an improvement program for the island. [163][164] In 1933, a federal committee led by the Secretary of Labor, Frances Perkins, was established to determine what operations and facilities needed improvement. [102][116] Tilton and Boring's plan called for four new structures: a main building in the French Renaissance style, as well as the kitchen/laundry building, powerhouse, and the main hospital building. [333] A 1917 New York Times article depicted the conditions of the detention center as being relatively hospitable. [229][224] A research facility with online database, the American Family Immigration History Center, was opened in April 2001. [278][279], An "L"-shaped powerhouse and laundry building, built in 1908, is also located on the west side of island 3. In the line inspection, the immigrants were split into several single-file lines, and inspectors first checked for any visible physical disabilities. [5] In addition, it was placed on UNESCO's list of tentative World Heritage Sites in 2017. Atop the corners of the building's central section are four towers capped by cupolas of copper cladding. [308] For the vast majority of passengers, since most transatlantic ships could not dock at Ellis Island due to shallow water, the ships unloaded at Manhattan first, and steerage passengers were then taken to Ellis Island for processing.

The kitchen and laundry structure is a two-and-a-half-story structure located west of the main building. [26] The ruling had no effect on the status of Liberty Island. [363] The museum contains several exhibits across three floors of the main building, with a first-floor expansion into the kitchen-laundry building. [365] The second floor includes the registry room, the hearing room, Through America's Gate, and Peak Immigration Years. [185] In 1959, real estate developer Sol Atlas unsuccessfully bid for the island, with plans to turn it into a $55 million resort with a hotel, marina, music shell, tennis courts, swimming pools, and skating rinks. The Wall of Honor, a monument to raise money for the restoration, was completed in 1990 and reconstructed starting in 1993. Immigration inspections were conducted aboard ships or at docks. [215], In May 1982, President Ronald Reagan announced the formation of the Statue of LibertyEllis Island Centennial Commission, led by Chrysler Corporation chair Lee Iacocca with former President Gerald Ford as honorary chairman, to raise the funds needed to complete the work.