Childhood dependability also predicted performance on the NART (r = .20 [.03, .36], p = .02), although these correlations did not remain significant after correcting for multiple comparisons. As raw ratings included the erroneous influence of intelligence on teacher-ratings, although residualized ratings may have been missing some valid shared variance with intelligence, neither derived measure of childhood dependability was likely to be exactly the same factor as those derived in older age. Meier B., Perrig-Chiello P., & Perrig W. (2002). Personality refers to an individuals characteristic patterns of thought, emotion, and behavior, together with the psychological mechanismshidden or notbehind those patterns (Funder, 2013, p. 5). Contrary to our hypotheses, there were no positive correlations strong enough to achieve significance between adolescent and older-age characteristic ratings or dependability. However, both measures of childhood IQ predicted older-age dependability when rated by others (SB IQ: r = .23 [.08, .37], p < .01; MHT IQ: r = .18 [.03, .33], p = .02). Federal government websites often end in .gov or .mil.

Regression weights for Self-Confidence and Originality were reduced by almost .1, suggesting that these characteristics were either particularly related to intelligence in childhood, or particularly susceptible to the influence of intelligence on teachers ratings. Childhood conscientiousness and longevity: Health behaviors and cause of death, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Previous evidence does suggest that halo effects influence teachers opinions of their pupils (Abikoff, Courtney, Pelham, & Koplewicz, 1993) and, more specifically, that teachers personality ratings are related to academic achievement (Scandette & Richter, 1971). (2008). Rater bias may have been more consistent among teachers, who would have all had more similar relationships with the participants to one another. The progression of personality changes in senile dementia of the Alzheimers type, Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. Mental and physical traits of a thousand gifted children, Measuring intelligence: A guide to the administration of the new Revised Stanford-Binet Tests of Intelligence, Who knows what about a person? Baker S. R., Victor J. The five-item Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS; Diener, Emmons, Larsen, & Griffin, 1985), also included in the questionnaire booklet, was used as an additional measure of subjective wellbeing. A second cognitive test in older age, also administered by telephone, was Ravens Standard Progressive Matrices (RSPM; Raven, 1938), a test of nonverbal reasoning. Personality has at least been observed to correlate with contemporaneous wellbeing (DeNeve & Cooper, 1998; Schmutte & Ryff, 1997; Steel, Schmidt, & Shultz, 2008), and others have also shown personality to predict wellbeing over time. Childhood characteristics and participation in Scottish Mental Survey 1947 6-Day Sample Follow-Ups: Implications for participation in aging studies. Agreement among adolescents, parents, and teachers on adolescent personality. Dependability was modeled both before (top) and after (bottom) removing IQ from teachers ratings. Intelligence was therefore also included in the present study. National Library of Medicine This was demonstrated by the correlations between self- and other-ratings in older age, which ranged from .26 to .48. All these correlations were significant after correcting for multiple comparisons. Before (2006). Goldberg L. R. (1999). There were no significant longitudinal correlations, although the closest to achieving significance was between teachers and others ratings of Conscientiousness (r = .13 [.02, .28]; p = .09).

(2016). The standardized regression weights estimated for paths from each childhood teacher-rating to each corresponding older-age latent characteristic were taken to represent the 63-year stability of each characteristic. Gale, Booth, Mttus, Kuh, and Deary (2013) also assessed subjective wellbeing in participants aged 60 to 64 years, previously assessed on personality at ages 16 and 26 years. licensed Edmonds G. W., Goldberg L. R., Hampson S. E., & Barckley M. (2013). Caspi A., Roberts B. W., & Shiner R. L. (2005). Finally, we tested the relations between personality and intelligence over 66 years by calculating the correlations among adolescent and older-age dependability, two measures of childhood IQ, and performance on two cognitive tests in older age. Self-other agreement in personality and affectivity: The role of acquaintanceship, trait visibility, and assumed similarity, British Journal of Psychology Monograph Supplement, Cognitive, conative, and non-intellective intelligence. Weaker paths were then removed in turn until only six remained, with each characteristic loading on one underlying factor. Correlations between self-rated dependability in older age and measures of wellbeing were also moderate, at .54 (CI [.42, .64]; p < .001) and .38 (CI [.24, .50]; p < .001). These were the only two results that achieved significance at = .05; neither was still significant when dependability was derived from residualized teacher ratings, and nor did they remain significant after correcting for multiple comparisons. Teachers ratings of disruptive behaviors: The influence of halo effects. Longitudinally, there was no significant correlation between adolescent dependability and performance on the RSPM (r = .16 [.02, .32], p = .08), nor between either SB IQ (r = .04 [.11, .19], p = .61) or MHT IQ (r = .08 [.08, .23], p = .34) and older-age dependability, as derived from self-ratings. However, the reduction in variance may have led to underestimation of the stability of personality characteristics. Nonetheless, at least four of the six characteristics still showed no clear evidence of stability from age 14 to age 77 years, consistent with the results of the correlations, and with a conclusion that personality in older age may be quite different from personality in childhood. We first ran the CFAs described above to evaluate the degree to which the ratings reflected a single common underlying construct across the long time span and different raters. This still may not have made their ratings any more comparable to those provided by participants themselves and their friends and relatives, because each rater type is subject to different kinds of bias. We also accounted for participants who were not reassessed in older age by making full information maximum likelihood (FIML) estimates of the longitudinal stability correlations and older-age interrater correlations. The study presented here assessed the relative stability from adolescence to older age of six single-item characteristic measures, devised by Terman (1925), and their underlying factor, dependability. Happiness is a personal(ity) thing: The genetics of personality and well-being in a representative sample. Psychosocial and behavioral predictors of longevity. One further limitation of the study is the number of items used to assess personality both in adolescence and in older age. Goldbergs IPIP Big-Five markers: Internal consistency and concurrent validation in Scotland, As time goes by: Change and stability in personality over fifty years, A first large cohort study of personality trait stability over the 40 years between elementary school and midlife, A simple sequentially rejective multiple test procedure, Personality and job performance: The Big Five revisited. However, the stability estimates for these two characteristics were still fairly low, whereas the estimated stabilities of the other four characteristics were even lower, suggesting that weakness of the longitudinal correlations could not be attributed solely to rater bias. This is comparable to other work predicting late-life outcomes from childhood personality assessments (Friedman et al., 1993, 1995a, 1995b). Data were analyzed in SPSS Statistics 19, using the accompanying AMOS package for all statistical modeling. Participants also received the RSPM question booklet in the sealed envelope sent out before the telephone interview, and provided their answers verbally. Each set of 6 ratings was reduced to the same single underlying factor, denoted dependability, a trait comparable to conscientiousness. Contemporaneously, adolescent dependability correlated with SB IQ (r = .39 [.34, .44]; p < .001) and MHT IQ (r = .38 [.33, .43]; p < .001). Even over relatively short periods, test-retest correlations are much weaker in childhood than in later life (Caspi et al., 2005; Hampson & Goldberg, 2006; Mttus et al., 2012; Roberts & DelVecchio, 2000).

Path labels represent standardized regression coefficients. Our results suggest that, when the interval is increased to as much as 63 years, there is hardly any relationship at all. The new PMC design is here! However, the fit of each model was not perfect, because not all characteristics were similarly closely related to dependability. (2013). Deary et al. This method of sampling also meant that the sample was representative of the cohort (MacPherson, 1958). Steel P., Schmidt J., & Shultz J. Furthermore, in contrast to the findings of Laidra et al. Diener et al. This model was applied to the three sets of ratingsthose provided by teachers (at age 14 years), and participants and others (at age 77 years)first with all parameters allowed to be free, and subsequently with regression weights, intercepts, structural covariances, and residuals progressively constrained to be equal across the three rater groups. Personality was also assessed at 77 years using the International Personality Item Pool (IPIP; Goldberg, 1999; Gow, Whiteman, Pattie, & Deary, 2005), which was also included in the questionnaire booklet. Other aspects of personality must have influenced variation in these characteristics, but from the data provided by these six characteristics alone, we could not reliably derive any additional underlying factors.

The higher stabilities of these two characteristics in particular were also consistent with previous research showing stability of related personality traits, neuroticism/emotional stability (Soldz & Vaillant, 1999) and particularly conscientiousness (Edmonds et al., 2013; Hampson & Goldberg, 2006). Although the model required rather strong causal assumptions, for which independent evidence would need to be developed, the results suggested that rater effects could have distorted the correlational results for these characteristics. Further details of participants included at each stage of the study are shown in Table 1 and further information on the follow-up subsample in relation to the full original 6-Day Sample can be found in Johnson et al. (2008) previously subjected the 6-Day Samples adolescent personality characteristic ratings to principal component analysis, attributing much of the variability in the data to a component they denoted dependability. Adolescence is a particularly dynamic period of personality development, as individuals tend to become more mature as they enter adulthood (Blonigen, Carlson, Hicks, Krueger, & Iacono, 2008; Johnson, Hicks, McGue, & Iacono, 2007; Roberts, Caspi, & Moffitt, 2001). Standardized regression weights of paths from childhood teacher-ratings to older-age latent characteristics were taken to represent the stability of personality from age 14 to age 77 years. A broad-bandwidth, public domain, personality inventory measuring the lower-level facets of several five-factor models In Mervielde I., Deary I., De Fruyt F., & Ostendorf F. Friedman H. S., Tucker J. S., Tomlinson-Keasey C., Schwartz J. E., Wingard D. L., & Criqui M. H. (1993). However, this sample size still provided enough power to detect small correlations of around .2, and a larger sample would not of course be expected to increase the strength of the correlations. As an alternative method of assessing stability of individual personality characteristics, while controlling systematic rater group effects, we tested a more complex model of all characteristic ratings. However, Stability of Moods and Conscientiousness did show moderate 63-year stability under this model, indicating that older-age personality and childhood personality may not be completely unrelated. We then repeated the longitudinal and interrater correlations using the residuals for each characteristic. For example, Hampson and Goldberg (2006) followed a cohort of over 2000 Hawaiians, first studied as elementary schoolchildren (aged 612 years) between 1959 and 1967. Scottish Council for Research in Education (1949). Stability and change in personality traits from late adolescence to early adulthood: A longitudinal twin study, Realising health data linkage from a researchers perspective: Following up the 6-Day Sample of the Scottish Mental Survey 1947, Personality development across the life course: The argument for change and continuity. We reran the stability correlations for teachers, participants and others individual characteristic ratings, after adjusting for systematic rater bias. Individual differences in personality traits are associated with many important aspects of life, including job performance (Hurtz & Donovan, 2000), criminal behavior (Samuels et al., 2004), and health behaviors (Mttus et al., 2013). Three participants who reported having been diagnosed with dementia were excluded from all analyses due to the impact that dementia can have upon personality (Rubin, Morris, & Berg, 1987; Smith-Gamble et al., 2002). Accessibility Informant reports of changes in personality predict dementia in a population-based study of elderly African Americans and Yoruba, The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, The Big Five personality traits and the life course: A 45-year longitudinal study, Meta-analytic guidelines for evaluating single-item reliabilities of personality instruments. Adolescent dependability also predicted NART performance in older age, whereas childhood IQ predicted older-age dependability (when derived from others ratings). However, prior studies assessed personality stability from childhood and would therefore have been affected in the same way, yet they still showed evidence of greater stability.

(1979) in assessing stability from late childhood. The Seattle Longitudinal Study: Relationship between personality and cognition, Personality and well-being: Reexamining methods and meanings. Of course, there were likely differences among individual raters within each group in how much intelligence (or any of a number of other factors) influenced their personality ratings.

This was compounded by the rather poor fits of the models. Teachers characteristic ratings were related to IQ in childhood, and others ratings were related to cognitive ability in older age. As they were selected according to their date of birth being on one of 6 days of 1936the 1st of February, April, June, August, October, and Decemberthe sample became known as the 6-Day Sample. (2006); Baker, Victor, Chambers, and Halverson (2004) found that, in a sample of 165 students of a small high school, teacher ratings of the Big Five personality factors were particularly reliable in comparison to self and peer ratings. Personality stability and change over a 30-year periodmiddle age to old age, Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, Sixteen years on: A follow-up of the 1947 Scottish Survey. Watson D., Hubbard B., & Wiese D. (2000). Personality stability from childhood to midlife: Relating teachers assessments in elementary school to observer- and self-ratings 40 years later. provide an internal consistency of .89 and a testretest reliability of .83 for the WEMWBS; we also measured internal consistency at .89 in the current sample. Participant selection flowchart. personality We hypothesized that we would find evidence of personality stability over an even longer period of 63 years, but our correlations did not support this hypothesis, appearing inconsistent with previous results. Further, Haan, Millsap, and Hartka (1986) observed stability correlations of .16 to .38 for six personality dimensions from early childhood (age 57 years) to late adulthood (age 5562 years). The Intelligence of Scottish Children: A National Survey of an Age Group. This model included a latent variable for each set of ratings, which should have controlled systematic rater group effects better than simply removing IQ from the teacher-ratings. (2016). Deary et al. Smith-Gamble V., Baiyewu O., Perkins A. J., Gureje O., Hall K. S., Ogunniyi A., et al.Hendrie H. C. (2002).

In 2012, the authors traced as many of these participants as possible and invited them to take part in a follow-up study. Finally, the model included paths from teachers adolescent characteristic ratings to the older-age latent characteristics, representing the stability of each characteristic over the 63-year interval. Variances in childhood IQ and dependability in our follow-up sample were reduced to 53% and 82%, respectively, of the original variances in the entire sample. All correlations between self-ratings and others ratings remained significant, ranging between .20 (CI [.12, .40]; p < .001) and .42 (CI [.29, .54]; p < .001). The construct of wellbeing is closely related to and perhaps even overlaps with personality, but also reflects maintenance of a life situation that fosters an ability to thrive (Weiss, Bates, & Luciano, 2008). However, in light of our finding that adolescent dependability did not significantly predict older-age dependability, it would not necessarily be expected to predict wellbeing either. Although trait stability correlations across later childhood and early adulthood were low for Neuroticism (.00) and Agreeableness (.08), modest correlations were apparent for Openness (.16), and particularly Conscientiousness (.25) and Extraversion (.29). The authors used data from a sample of the Scottish Mental Survey, 1947 to study personality stability from childhood to older age. Including this additional set of ratings allowed us to assess self-other consistency, which could be taken as an index of validity of each personality measure; these correlations are reported in the Results section. As shown, the single-factor model did fit the data, although not perfectly (CFI = .84, RMSEA = .11), but constraining all parameters equal across rater groups, testing strict invariance of the dependability factor, did not, overall, impair model fit (CFI = 81, RMSEA = .08). Observers could also be influenced by a number of other irrelevant factors, such as appearance, their opinion of a subjects family, or prejudices regarding the area in which a subject lives. Whether derived from self-ratings or from others ratings, dependability was at least modestly related to all five of these other measures of personality in older age. Although the original 6-Day Sample included 1,208 participants, almost perfectly representative of the entire cohort of Scottish people born in 1936, not all of the original participants were able and willing to take part in the follow-up study. Furthermore, it is generally recognized that personality continues to change throughout life, and stability correlations tend to be weaker over longer intervals (Caspi et al., 2005; Roberts & DelVecchio, 2000). The Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-Being Scale (WEMWBS): Development and UK validation. Dependability was estimated as the single factor underlying ratings on all six characteristics, constraining regression weights, intercepts, structural covariances, and residuals equal across the three rater groupsteachers (at age 14 years), and participants and others (at age 77 years).